this increase of connective tissue, which is formed on the violations of the skin. Such formations are not only a cosmetic defect, and can lead to limitation of mobility. The formation of the keloid scar exposed to both sexes, both male and female with equal probability. The main age group that is prone to occurrence of keloid scars from 10 to 40 years. Usually the keloid is much less frequently seen in childhood and in old age.
Keloid scar is not fully studied phenomenon and its causes are unknown. Normally, wounds heal in about a year. The completion of this process is the formation of a Mature scar. But sometimes this healing process is disturbed. Keloid scars are already beginning to develop through 0,53 months since the appearance of the wound and continue to grow even after 6 months of injury.
Keloid scar can occur anywhere on the body from even minor injuries. The nature and size of the damage is not associated with the probability of occurrence of the scar.
Experts distinguish four stages of development
- epithelialization, when the injury site is covered with a thin layer of epithelium. On average, a week later, the film of the epithelium begins to Grubel and condensed, changing color, and becoming more pale
- stage of swelling, which occurs after 2.5 weeks. This period is characterized by an increase in volume of the rumen appear painful on palpation. This stage lasts about 34 weeks. At the end of the period, the rumen stops being painful and becomes red
- stage seal when the rumen is covered with dense plaques and becomes less smooth. At this stage the scars are similar to keloid tumor
- stage of softening, the last stage in the development of keloid scar. During this period, the scar becomes more pale, and no pain, the scar becomes soft and more flexible.
Formed keloid scar is not dangerous to human health, but it can bring discomfort, as with the psychological and physical sides. These scars are unable to disappear or even diminish over time. To avoid damage to the keloid scar, it can lead increasing the size of the scar or deterioration.
The main prerequisites of scarring are
- incorrectly mapped to the edges of the wound
- getting a wound infection and suppuration of wounds
- strongly stretched skin around the wound
- hormonal disturbance in the body
- a weakened immune system
- a genetic predisposition to developing keloids.
In most cases, stabilization of keloid scar occurs within a year or two after development.
Keloid scar can appear due to a different kind of damage, both from direct injuries and burns, and surgery. Starting from 23 weeks of primary healing of the skin at the site of injury appear the first sections of the compacted fabric. In place of the scar there is pain and hypersensitivity, note sometimes itching or burning sensation. After a short period of time in the area of the lesions appear solid, convex, and smooth scars. During this period the scar has a reddish color, and the skin around the keloid scar becomes more pale. A sign of a keloid scar is that it occupies a large area relative to the initial damage to the skin. Keloid tissue continues to grow even several years after wound healing. Some patients noted the appearance of outgrowths which rise above the surface scars.
The main place of formation keloids are the ears, chest, neck, back and shoulders. Much less scars occur on the joints or face. In thermal burn keloid scar can form on any area of the body. Modern plastic surgeons are paying much attention to mole. This is due to the fact that some of them can lead to the development of cancer. The most popular method of removing moles is surgical intervention. The result is a new keloid scar after you remove moles. This disadvantage of cosmetic surgery is not depends on the skill of the surgeon.
Diagnosis of keloid scar is the initial examination the surgeon and the collection of data about when and under what circumstances did this scar.
Treatment of keloid scars is made individually for each individual case. As specific methods of treatment does not exist, use a variety of methods suitable to a specific case, or a combination
- laser resurfacing. The main advantage is minimal risk of damage to surrounding scar tissue. In this way the complete removal of keloid scars is impossible, but the laser will make it less noticeable. A significant disadvantage is that the probability of relapse, which is associated with the formation of an edge keloid scars
- the use of steroids. Keloid scar undergoes a series of injections with steroid drugs. Mostly externally, the scar becomes less noticeable, but this method also allows you to completely remove a keloid scar. As in the past method, there is the likelihood of recurrence
- cryotherapy. Cryotherapy should be used in the treatment of keloids just for the young as for the old cold has no such effect. The application of this method often leads to darkening of the scar tissue
- surgery. When the scarring of the large size it makes sense to use this method, as other methods may not be effective. Keloid scar after surgery may not be completely removed, and this can lead to the formation of new scar larger. This is directly linked to rare application of this method
- creams and ointments. There are a large number of anti-scar ointments, but they only help half of the cases.