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Jaundice

  1. Reasons
  2. Symptoms
  3. Treatment


Jaundice

dysfunction of the excretion of bile-pigments, in particular, the secretion of bilirubin. The disease occurs when excessive secretion of this pigment, which is deposited in the tissues of the body. A typical manifestation of this disease is excessively yellow hue of the skin, mucous membranes of various organs.

The development of jaundice is the first evidence of disorders of the biliary tract and liver. Also, the disease signaled the appearance in the body disease processes that disrupt the work of those bodies. In some cases, the jaundice shows the presence of diseases, which is accompanied by Kemalism massive character.

Classification

In the General case, there are three forms of jaundice that are pathogenic in nature

  • hepatocellular form caused by dysfunction of the excretion of bilirubin in the liver cells. In some cases, the cause of the jaundice of this form is a regurgitation of the pigment
  • hemolytic jaundice, or suprarenal form of the disease is characterized by excessive formation of bilirubin in the body. Quite often it develops on the basis of the effect of foreign mechanisms.
  • jaundice, known as obstructive form of the disease category of jaundice, in which the secretion of bilirubin is broken in the region of the bile ducts.

Jaundice, arising at influence on the organism of viral hepatitis, symptoms of liver resembles a form that developed because of a dysfunction of hepatocytes and jaundice mechanical forms of the disease when the compressed and swollen bile ducts inside the liver.

The occurrence of jaundice in the haemolytic form in nature may be similar to the obstructive jaundice form, due to the developing pigment stones that cause obstruction of the biliary tract.

Hepatic form of the disease can vary in its course with signs of hemolytic and cholestatic syndromes. However, to assign the correct treatment, determining the nature of the disease becomes more critical.

Reasons

There are three main categories of liver disease

  • hepatocellular jaundice, which develops in the course of viral hepatitis in its acute form, cirrhosis and alcoholic liver disease, due to exposure to toxic substances, or certain medications. Manifested by icteric bright skin swallowed, a sudden or a more moderate increase of bilirubin level. Possible manifestation of extrahepatic jaundice, for example, spider veins
  • cholestatic form is caused by effects on the body medicines, hepatitis b virus and chronic forms of age-related cholestasis benign forms, the initial stage of biliary cirrhosis, cholestatic hepatosis, occurring during pregnancy, and other factors
  • animationsa form of jaundice to the development of this form of disease is based on disturbed fermentation processes elements on which rests the task of capturing, conjugation and excretion of bilirubin. The result of the occurrence of this form of jaundice is hyperbilirubinemia benign nature of the causing genetic defect of the enzyme system of the body.

Symptoms

Hemolytic jaundice

Jaundice in newborns most often observed in the hemolytic form. Also, newborn jaundice may occur in the form, which is called physiological jaundice. This manifestation is a transition stage in the development of the body of a newborn baby.

Jaundice in children in most cases manifests itself in this form. Influence on the development of this form of jaundice have malaria, exposure to toxic substances, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, hemoglobinopathies, anemia, hereditary microspherocytosis nature, pulmonary infarction and other diseases.

Symptoms of jaundice in this form, pale and icteric skin and sclera, a small increase in the volume of the liver, an increase in the spleen.

Diagnosis of the jaundice of this form also shows the presence of hyperbilirubinemia, which is dominated by the indirect fraction. Also symptomatic picture of this form of the disease involves elevated levels of sterkobilina in the composition of the feces, the metamorphosis of the red blood cells or a reduced resistance of these blood cells.

Obstructive jaundice

Obstructive form of jaundice in their development is based on the obstacles to the outflow of bile from the bile ducts in the region of the duodenum.

The reason for this obstruction can be stones, pancreatic tumor, tumor of the bile duct, gallbladder, liver, parasites, tumoral processes in the field of large duodenal papilla, cicatricial changes of the nature, processes, hypoplasia or atresia in biliary tract.

In most cases, this form of jaundice is diagnosed in the case of gallstones and tumors encountered in hepatopancreatoduodenal zone.

Obstructive jaundice

The symptomatic pattern of obstructive jaundice following paroxysmal pain in the right side of the hypochondrium, sometimes painful sensation in the upper abdomen, vomiting, diarrhea, feeling of nausea, decreased appetite, weight loss, itchy skin, feverish feeling.

In the case of the process of obturation, at the level below the confluence of the cystic duct in the common bile duct of bile can be an increase of volume of the gallbladder, which is called symptom Courvoisier. In this form of the disease the stool has no color, and the urine dark-colored.

With the development of obstructive forms of the disease most often there is hyperbilirubinemia a high level due to the direct bilirubin. Also the disease manifests itself through a high level of alkaline phosphatase activity. In the case of a long process of obturation, there is the activity of aminotransferases unusually high level. With the development of a complete obstruction of the outflow pathways of bile manifested by discoloration of the duodenal contents.

Treatment

Patients who have suffered or suffer toxic damage of the liver, you first need to provide emergency care. Measures that help provide for the immediate termination of the processes of penetration of toxic substances into the patient. For these purposes can be used by antidote therapy. The measures of the urgent help suggest a action to the neutralization and excretion of the toxin from the body of the patient.

Patients with obstructive form of the disease is administered not more than 1 ml of a solution of sulphate of atropine concentration of 0.1%, or 1 ml of a solution of papaverine with a concentration of 2% to eliminate the pain syndrome which is pronounced.

Jaundice treatment also involves hospitalization of the patient, especially if the disease triggered by viral hepatitis. Measures to cure diseases apply within the infectious, therapeutic or surgical hospital, regardless of the form of the developing of the disease.

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Approximately on the third day after birth jaundice in newborns whites of their eyes, cheeks, or entire body of the baby turns yellow. It is not a disease, and diagnostic phenomenon. In most cases, it is perfectly normal and occurs in approximately 60% of newborns.


Jaundice is a pathological syndrome that is in violation of outflow of bile on the bile pathways in the 12-duodenum due to certain obstructions. Frequently used synonyms obstructive jaundice, Cholesky jaundice, extrahepatic cholestasis.


Physiological neonatal jaundice icteric staining of the skin and mucous membranes of children, manifested in the first 2-4 days of life due to disorders of bilirubin metabolism. In healthy children the appearance of physiological jaundice is due to immaturity of enzyme systems in the liver.


Approximately on the third day after birth jaundice in newborns whites of their eyes, cheeks, or entire body of the baby turns yellow. It is not a disease, and diagnostic phenomenon. In most cases, it is perfectly normal and occurs in approximately 60% of newborns.


Jaundice is a pathological syndrome that is in violation of outflow of bile on the bile pathways in the 12-duodenum due to certain obstructions. Frequently used synonyms obstructive jaundice, Cholesky jaundice, extrahepatic cholestasis.


Physiological neonatal jaundice icteric staining of the skin and mucous membranes of children, manifested in the first 2-4 days of life due to disorders of bilirubin metabolism. In healthy children the appearance of physiological jaundice is due to immaturity of enzyme systems in the liver.