Iron deficiency anemia
a disease in which marked decrease in the hemoglobin level of the blood, combined with a decrease in serum iron and increased iron-binding capacity the capacity of the blood. Iron deficiency anemia is widespread, often diagnosed in children and pregnant women. One of the hallmarks of cancer is anemia.
- Excess iron in the body is deposited in the depot, which is the bone marrow, liver, spleen. If it comes from food is insufficient, it may be the cause of the depletion of iron stores and development of anemia in adults and children. The fetus accumulates iron at all periods of pregnancy, especially in the last trimester (40%), which is an important factor in the development of the disease in prematurity. Iron deficiency anemia on the background of placental insufficiency, multiple pregnancy.
- The body needs iron more than in normal conditions. A particular need in the gland develops at puberty, in girls with onset of menstruation, in pregnant women, nursing mothers. When respiratory viral diseases increased iron consumption.
- Insufficient absorption of iron in the human intestine. In the duodenum by enzymes absorbed the greatest part of the iron. It is best absorbed iron from beef, liver, chicken meat, much less eggs, and vegetable products. Phytates and phosphates inhibit absorption of iron.
- The loss of iron by the body, beyond the necessary receipt.
Found iron-deficiency anemia, the causes of which are difficult to install, and sometimes after further examination, the cause remains unclear.
- Easy the hemoglobin of 90-110 GL erythrocytes of 3.0-3.5 x 1012 l
- The average hemoglobin of 70-90 GL red blood cells of 2.5-3.0 x 1012 l
- Heavy hemoglobin less than 70 GL red blood cells less than 2.5 x 1012 L.
The daily need of iron -8-10 mg.
Signs of iron deficiency anemia are hidden (hidden deficiency) and explicit. If there is a hidden iron deficiency symptoms of anemia is not so expressed, isolated and marked not always. Normal figures of hemoglobin in the blood not alarming, and only a reduced level of serum iron helps to identify this condition.
Iron-deficiency anemia, whose symptoms are expressed, has a reduced level of hemoglobin in the blood. All the symptoms occurring in this disease, developing on the background of tissue hypoxia. We can identify the following syndromes
- epithelial the skin is pale, dry, dystrophic nail changes
- asthenoneurotic syndrome tachycardia, muted tones of the heart, functional systolic murmur
- cardiovascular syndrome – irritability, decreased appetite, dysgeusia, fatigue
- hepatolienal enlargement of the liver, spleen
Frequency of occurrence of symptoms in the first place, the pallor, and then in descending order – frequent respiratory infections, irritability, taste perversion.
Iron deficiency anaemia in children is manifested by the above symptoms. In the first place is pallor of the skin, frequent respiratory infections, disorders of behavior and appetite. The highest probability of development of anemia in premature infants. Children, fed artificially on cow’s milk also have high chances of developing anemia.
In children it is possible to allocate the following features. In the first year of life iron-deficiency anemia, signs of which are confirmed by laboratory data, may be normal variant, due to the peculiarities of hematopoiesis at this age. The decline in this case occurs between the ages of 3 months and 6 months of age.
In order to assess the condition of the child is necessary to interpret blood test in keeping with the changing (more than once) age indicators.
The diagnosis of iron deficiency is based primarily on the results of blood tests. A decrease in hemoglobin, red blood cells – sign of anemia. For anemia is characterized by the identification of hypochromia, anisocytosis. The increase of reticulocytes indicates active hematopoiesis in the bone marrow.
The diagnosis is confirmed if serum iron less than 12 mkmoll, total iron binding capacity serum capacity above 64 mkmoll.
To identify the causes anemia patient is checked by a gynecologist, an internist, if necessary, a surgeon, an oncologist, a hematologist. The additional studies for identifying the disease that caused anemia, ultrasound, MRI, REG.
If you are able to find out the cause of anemia, it should be eliminated.
Treatment of iron deficiency anemia is carried out with the use of drugs, when identifying any of its degree. Preference is given to preparations of trivalent iron. Most popular ferrum-Lek, maltofer. Well tolerated and gives high therapeutic effect, even, ferropleks, aktiferrin.
Iron preparations may be in the form of tablets, syrup and ampoules for intravenous injection.
In complex with iron supplementation take a multivitamin containing folic and ascorbic acid.
Blood transfusion as a method of treatment is currently applied. If necessary, intravenous transfusion of blood components (erythrocyte mass).
Iron-deficiency anemia, treatment which is carried out without medication, the long-term is accompanied by its symptoms, so as to obtain iron in sufficient quantity from the outside, without the help of drugs impossible.
Bioavailability of iron from food is small. Despite this, nutrition is necessary to include foods rich in iron, from which it most fully assimilated (beef, veal, liver, fish, egg yolk). Children meat foods introduced from 6 months.
Patients with iron deficiency anemia are under medical observation, allowing the doctor to monitor their condition and to make necessary adjustments to the examination or treatment. The treatment is carried out within a few months, its effectiveness is judged by the normalization in the blood.