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Hypertension


Hypertension

disease of the cardiovascular system, which is a global problem of the world community, characterized by recurrent or permanent increase in blood pressure of 140 mm of mercury. article

In the most prevalent hypertension is essential (hypertension), that is, a progressive increase in pressure is not correlated with the internal disorders come the influence of external negative factors. Much less common secondary hypertension due to concomitant renal dysfunction, endocrine system, medications, etc.

Complication of hypertension is a serious condition, leading to disruption of the degree of blood supply to the heart muscle and brain of a hypertensive crisis. It is proved that hypertension is a dominant factor in the development of angina and stroke.

In medicine there are three degrees of hypertension.

First the extent of the disease is characterized by a systolic (top) pressure in the range 140159 mm Hg. art., diastolic (lower) is in the range of 9099 mm Hg. article Arterial hypertension of 2nd degree, is diagnosed when systolic pressure reaches 160179 mmHg. art., and diastolic 100109 mmHg. art In the third degree diastolic pressure is above 180 mm Hg. article, lower above 110 mm Hg. article

There are also isolated systolic hypertension. In this state the patient fix the upper pressure of 149 mm Hg. article, lower to 90 mm Hg. article inclusive. Hypertension can be primary and secondary. The primary form occurs without lesions of the other organs. Secondary develops on the background of pathologies of other organs, and is nephrogenic, which is associated with kidney disease and disorders in the endocrine system. There are also secondary medicinal form. It appears because of taking some medicines.

In pregnant women after 20 weeks there is a special form of gestational. Sometimes the pressure can single be under the influence of external factors, for example, due to different phobias fear of the doctor, confined spaces, etc. However, such States are not disease.


Reasons

Usually the exact cause of the primary form of the disease is difficult to determine. However, there are a number of risk factors that can lead to. One of the first and main unhealthy lifestyle. It involves harmful habits Smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, obesity, consumption of salt in excess. Also at risk are people over 55 and those who are in a constant state of stress, and patients whose relatives suffer from hypertension.

The secondary form of the disease occurs on the background of other pathologies. It can cause diseases of the kidneys and renal vessels and adrenal glands. Quite often high blood pressure is observed in hemodynamic factors and atherosclerotic lesions of blood vessels, coarctation of the aorta.

Also to the development of disease causes obstructive sleep apnea (nocturnal snoring temporary stop breathing), multiple tumors. Pharmaceutical secondary form occurs due to hormonal drugs, antipyretics and other medicaments. Basically, in children, the disease develops as a secondary disease.


Symptoms

Disease arterial hypertension is accompanied by certain symptoms. The main one in the beginning of the disease a persistent increase in blood pressure, which is higher than 14090 mm Hg. the article Then perhaps the emergence of a number of symptoms that signals the defeat of the other organs. Quite often hypertension is accompanied by dizziness and headache, blurred vision, flashing flies. On the patient’s body edema. Also marked clinical disorders that accompany heart failure is shortness of breath, suffocation.

In children the clinical picture may be supplemented by memory loss and difficulties with concentration. Hypertension quite often accompanies the state of pregnancy.


Diagnosis

On examination, the doctor performs analysis of medical history and current complaints. It includes information about how long ago there were persistent symptoms which the patient has an acceptable blood pressure and the pressure at which the patient’s well-being. The analysis of concomitant diseases hereditary factor.

During the examination the doctor will conduct a physical study examines the patient for signs of rales in the lungs, the noise on large vessels and in the heart. Mandatory measured blood pressure. Conducted laboratory analysis of blood. Check the level of hemoglobin, erythrocytes, platelets, leukocytes, etc. It helps to detect hidden disease, which the patient may not know. Urinalysis allows us to determine the condition of the kidneys. Program the patient survey includes ultrasound of the organs and systems of the kidneys, renal vessels, adrenal glands, circulatory system.

There is echocardiographic (EchoCG), electrocardiographic (ECG) studies, giving the doctor an idea about the status of the heart, changes in the tissues and the body. Daily blood pressure monitoring allows to reveal fluctuations, to establish the highest possible performance. For a more accurate diagnosis of the patient can be involved and other specialists, ophthalmologist, gynecologist, internist,

.


Treatment

Treatment of hypertension is long lasting and can be chosen individually. It takes into account tolerability, presence of complications, the extent of the disease. If the disease develops on the background of other pathologies, treatment involves getting rid of the primary disease.

Non-pharmacological treatment includes a number of simple and quite effective measures. The patient is recommended a rational and balanced diet, limit daily intake of salt. If we are talking about high blood pressure in children, it is often limited to these measures. Mandatory measure is avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and Smoking, normalization of weight, moderate exercise.

Drug treatment of hypertension includes treatment of several groups of drugs

  • ACE inhibitors they affect blood pressure regulation and blood volume
  • antagonists of receptors of angiotensin 2 open up blood vessels narrowed due to the blockade of nerve formations
  • calcium antagonists act on the cells of the cardiovascular system and reduce the vascular tone
  • beta-adrenoblokatory block the receptors that respond to stress hormones
  • diuretics have a diuretic effect
  • the centrally acting drugs affect brain structures, contribute to the maintenance of blood pressure at a normal level
  • a combination of drugs have a multifaceted effect.


Complications

The risk of recurrence of hypertension is quite high due to complications and possible consequences. The most frequent complication of hypertensive crisis. It is characterized by redness of the face, severe headache, especially in the occipital region, dizziness. The patient feels a buzzing in the ears, blurred vision, flashing flies. Sometimes he ends up losing consciousness. A person in this condition needs immediate hospitalization.

Another quite dangerous consequence of a stroke. And it is worth noting that the disease was recently much younger, and hemorrhage is often the case even thirty years. Dangerous disease, when the diagnosis of hypertensive heart disease, also referred nephrosclerosis leading to renal failure, cardiac failure, thrombosis, hypertrophy and myocardial infarction, eye disease. Many complications lead to premature death of the patient. In pregnant women there is a specific condition of eclampsia. It requires immediate medical involvement.


Prevention

Preventive measures consist of number of simple guidelines they will help to minimize the risks of development of arterial hypertension. The simplest proper and balanced diet that contains minimal amount of salt. Every day the body needs a moderate half-hour of physical activity. Great harm can cause health harmful habits of Smoking and drinking alcohol. It is very important to monitor their weight, avoid obesity. You should try to avoid stress and conflict situations both at home and at work. It is important to monitor your health, and promptly treat other diseases. Pregnant women should be timely to be registered no later than 12 weeks, and then the risks of hypertension will be minimal.