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Hyperprolactinemia

  1. Reasons
  2. Symptoms
  3. Diagnosis
  4. Treatment


Hyperprolactinemia

a condition where in the blood there is elevated levels of prolactin. This disease occurs mostly in women but can be men and justified like a number of physiological and pathological reasons.

Reasons

The disease is of a physiological nature carries no risk and is often found in perfectly healthy women. For example, the increase in prolactin they may at moments night of sleep, severe stress (physical), sexual intercourse, pregnancy, breastfeeding, stress, after childbirth.

And the disease of a pathological nature indicates the presence of some diseases and is divided into organic and functional. It is known that organic type of disease occurs because of benign tumors in the pituitary gland (prolactinoma), which can be observed in patients of both sexes and have different sizes.

As for hyperprolactinemia functional type, then the disease can be caused by pathology or chest trauma, renal failure and so on. Can cause disease and factors such as permanent intake of medicines for different purposes, and also took place to be a major operation.

Determined that milk hormone (another name for prolactin) may increase even in the absence of any cause (idiopathic form of the disease).

Symptoms

In women, the disease can manifest itself in different ways, the delay of menstruation or its complete absence, disturbed ovulation, galactorrhea (the secretion of colostrum or milk), hyperestrogenia (vaginal dryness), blurred vision, infertility.

The male half of humanity, when prolactin is elevated, there is a reduction of testosterone in the blood. As a result, begins to progress in libido (decreased interest in sex), increase impotence and infertility.

Complications

The disease can lead to such complications

  • the development of pituitary insufficiency
  • compression of the optic nerve
  • the manifestation of osteoporosis
  • the transition of benign to malignant.

Diagnosis

To accurately diagnose the disease, the compulsory blood sampling of veins in the morning. Due to the fact that prolactin is able to increase not only in the case of hyperprolactinemia, may require repetition of the analysis (up to 3 times). Even the doctor will prescribe the examination of the pituitary region, by ordering this craniography and it is possible that the MRI and CT scan. In addition, it is possible to establish the hormonal levels of the thyroid gland, study of the visual fields and fundus.

Treatment

Treatment of hyperprolactinemia mainly occurs due to the medicines, allowing not to bring patients to surgery. The most common cure for this disease is considered as parlodel (bromocriptine). It is designed to deal with prolactinomas are significantly reducing them in size.

Can be used in the treatment of other drugs prescribed

norprolac, lisurid, terguride, dostinex (cabergoline), metergoline, dihydroergocryptine. They are designed to reduce prolactinemia level that returns to normal within several weeks of beginning treatments. In the process of healing in women comes in normal menstrual cycle and reproduction (possible even emergency and pregnancy).

In men gradually increases the growth of testosterone and normalizes the quality of sexual life.

It should be remembered that the functional treatment of hyperprolactinemia begins only after treatment of the underlying disease, against which the disease developed. For example, elevated prolactin levels in women due to gynecological diseases (uterine fibroids, endometriosis, etc.).

If the hyperprolactinemia cannot be cured with medication (for example, to reduce the size of the tumor), will be applied to surgery or radiation therapy.

Prevention

Special measures of prevention of the disease has not. The only thing the patient should keep away from emotional stress and physical strain, so as not to cause a rise in prolactin levels in the blood.

Women definitely need to think about a method of contraception. That is, if they want to continue to use oral contraceptives, preference should be given to those that contain pure Progestogens. But from strogensoderaimi combo have to give up, like intrauterine devices (they are the irritant receptors of the endometrium).