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Hookworm disease

  1. Reasons
  2. Symptoms
  3. Diagnosis
  4. Treatment


Hookworm disease

this is the pathology caused by parasitism of worms of Ancylostoma (round worms) in the intestine of man. There are two types of parasites-nematodes that can cause this disease krivodanovka duodenum and necator. They are very similar in body structure and the influence on the human body. Disseminated disease hookworm disease in countries such as Italy, southern Portugal, South America, Georgia, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and in the South-Eastern edge of Asia.

Reasons

Foci of infection are parasites that enter the body through contact with sick animals sometimes carry disease people. Where most likely to occur, the epidemic of hookworm disease, have high humidity and temperature, they are characterized by unsanitary conditions. To areas at risk of infection, include coal and metal mining mine. Possible ways of infection with contact and oral. Usually this happens if there is not enough good to wash your hands before eating after working with earth, for example, in the garden or flower bed. The larvae, which, in fact, infect the body illness, such as hookworm, can get into the human body by penetrating into the epidermal layer of the skin. If you eat dirty vegetables and fruit, so too can expose yourself to infection with hookworm.

A week later after the defeat of the body by larvae people can infect people in close environment. During this period, parasitic organisms begin to proliferate and their eggs are excreted during defecation. Anthropology call such infectious parasitic diseases, pathogens of which are able to spread and live only in the human body.

After the eggs of the parasite in the feces enter the soil, begins to develop a hookworm. The optimum temperature for it is about thirty degrees. In different directions move in the ground the larvae will not occur until after contact with human skin. Then they begin to rapidly invade the dermal layers. Thus, the larvae make their way to the blood vessels and continue heading in the right atrium. Through the pulmonary artery into the pulmonary capillaries of the alveoli, so that they burst and nematodes droop into the alveoli, and then through the respiratory tract fall in the throat. In the intestine the larvae fall during ingestion with secretion of the oral cavity. In the gastro-intestinal tract the larvae penetrate along with food. There they grow and can live for around six years. Their larvae will come out together with faeces. This migration of parasites in the human body is called necatoroz.

Symptoms

Many patients who have hookworm disease, symptoms may not appear during the first two months (at this time is the incubation period). Not many larvae can enter the body, because the person may not notice symptoms. The first signs of infection often appear on the skin itching and rashes. They may be present for several months.

Swelling of the extremities is observed in a mass invasion. When the parasites are respiratory tract, the patient may develop pneumonia or bronchitis, and can do a trivial cough and shortness of breath. When the infection acquires a later form, and the larvae had already penetrated into the intestine, a person may experience unpleasant sensations in the stomach, pain, burning, vomiting and diarrhea. If the hookworm has passed into the chronic stage, the patient suffers permanent debility of the body, pain in the epigastric area, dizziness, swelling of extremities and weight loss.

It is important to know that the hookworm has teeth and she clings to the intestinal mucosa. As a result, in those places ulcers develop, which can reach two inches in circumference. Due to chronic blood loss, the patient may develop a hypochromic iron-deficiency anemia and constant low blood protein. The person is observed lethargy, as it affected the nervous system, and it can start to lag behind in mental development. If an abnormal condition reaches the extreme severe condition, the disease can lead to death.

Diagnosis

Due to the fact that the eggs of hookworm and necator it is impossible to distinguish when they find them, then put a generalized diagnosis of hookworm disease. To determine the presence of parasites in the body, conduct laboratory testing of stool, which continue to repeat and after treatment for two weeks.

Treatment

When ankilostomidoz disease, treatment with these drugs, combantrin, nattamon or levamisole. These drugs can cause side effects intoxication, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, disorders of blood composition, allergic and neurological disorders. In connection with such complications during treatment the patient is in the hospital.