an infectious disease that has a viral nature and is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, the main manifestation of which is jaundice, and reversible disruption of the liver.
The virus that causes hepatitis E, belongs to a family of viruses Herpeveridae, kind of Herpevirus. The incidence of hepatitis E is widespread, but still, it is most widespread in Eastern, South and Central Asia. The cases in the CIS countries and Europe mainly due to tourist travel to countries with high risk of epidemic hepatitis E.
According to who statistics, each year 20 million new cases of hepatitis E, of which 3 million cases of the disease is acute, and 57 thousand of cases are fatal.
Basically, the disease affects persons in the age group of 15-35 years, and the lowest number of cases of the disease registered among children.
Source of hepatitis E virus is a sick person whose disease is in a latent, Busselton the form of the virus, standing out from the human body through the digestive tract often contaminate drinking water (this is most likely at low levels of sanitation and hygiene).
After penetration of viral particles into the body it penetrate the liver cells (hepatocytes), which actively multiply. The incubation period for hepatitis E is 40 days average, but it is possible fluctuations in the range of 3-8 weeks.
It is important to note that the period of time during which the patient remains infectious, is not currently installed.
Onset is accompanied by the gradual manifestation of symptoms of dyspepsia, coupled with weakness, excessive fatigue, slight fever. During the first 3-4 days of the disease the patient plagued by nausea, abdominal pain, recorded a decrease of appetite. Immediately after the expiration of this time the color of urine of the patient is painted in a dark color that makes you seek help to the doctor.
Approximately 10 days appears jaundice, which may gradually increase (within 2-3 days) or, alternatively, to proceed with lightning speed (within a couple hours). Icteric period can 2-3 weeks and all this time, weakness, loss of appetite, nausea continues, what is the hallmark of hepatitis A.
Usually, hepatitis E ends in complete recovery of the patient, but in some cases it can develop immediately and can lead to death. Special risk group are pregnant women, 20% of the patients in the third trimester pregnant women, hepatitis E is fatal.
For hepatitis E is not typical chronic course of the process. With the exception of the immunocompromised patients and patients with immunodeficiency syndrome.
The most typical of hepatitis E symptoms
- lack of appetite
- abdominal pain
- pain in the right upper quadrant
- the rise in temperature to subfebrile level (37-38)
- the increase in size of the liver
- dark urine
- discoloration of feces
Often, a specific diagnosis of hepatitis E is prescribed in the case when the results of tests for hepatitis A, b and C were negative and when the patient within 6 months were not subjected to parenteral injections and infusions.
Specific diagnosis is the detection of antibodies in the blood serum of the patient by ELISA(DMI IgE anti-HEV) or detection of virus RNA in the blood using polymerase chain reaction.
Treatment of hepatitis E is symptomatic is assigned bed rest, is attributed to the gentle, well-balanced content of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, diet. To eliminate the symptoms of intoxication the patient is prescribed to drink plenty of liquids, recommended alkaline mineral water, glucose solution 5% in.
In acute course of the disease resorting to drug therapy intravenous detoxification solutions (reopolyglucin, reosorbilakt), injectable corticosteroids (prednisone) to prevent hemorrhagic syndrome menadione and askorutin, inhibitors of pancreatic enzymes.
After recovery the patients are within six months subject to observation, and the students at this time, exempt from sports.
The most effective measure of prevention is personal hygiene and improving sanitary and hygienic standard of living of the population. In 2011, China created the first vaccine against hepatitis E, which, however, has not yet been approved for use at the global level.