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Hepatitis B


Hepatitis B

this is an acute disease caused by the hepatitis b virus and affects the liver cells.

Hepatitis b is extremely resistant to physical and chemical environment, low and high temperature, freezing and thawing, long-term effect of acidic environment. Even after boiling the virus is not destroyed and can remain on objects for weeks.

According to the statistics, 240 million people suffer from chronic hepatitis B. About 780 thousand people each year die from hepatitis b virus, of which 650 thousand from cirrhosis and liver cancer and 130 thousand from acute hepatitis B. health care Workers are at increased risk of disease hepatitis b virus.

Viral hepatitis is manifested in acute and chronic stages. High risk of chronic hepatitis In susceptible children infected before 6 years, about 90% of children in the first year of life infected with hepatitis b suffer from chronic forms of the disease. About 5% of cases of hepatitis b infection in adults over the chronic course of the disease. The most difficult hepatitis suffer the children under five years and elderly people.

Complications hepatitis b can be severe and lead to death. Improper or late treatment of the disease leads to destruction of the liver, the patient develops acute liver failure, bleeding, hepatic coma and malignant tumors. Acute hepatitis b during pregnancy can lead to the loss of a child.

Causes of hepatitis b

The cause of the disease is hepatitis b, which refers to the kind of hepadnaviruses. The danger of the virus is that it is extremely resistant to external factors, has high portability. The hepatitis b virus persists for weeks, even in dry blood stain on the end of the needle and the blade of scissors or razor. In humans who recover from hepatitis b, remains immune for life.

The incubation period of the hepatitis b virus takes about 75 days, but can vary between 30-180 days. The disease can be detected within one or two months after infection and may remain in the body and go into the chronic stage of hepatitis.

The hepatitis b virus can be transmitted in the following ways

  • In underdeveloped countries without vaccination, the hepatitis b virus is transmitted at birth from mother to child, or from a sick child to another child with the first year of life up to five years. The risk of developing a chronic disease is very high among infants and children up to five years of life.
  • The virus is transmitted through skin or mucosal exposure to infected blood or other body fluids, as well as through saliva, menstrual and vaginal secretions and semen. The hepatitis b virus is transmitted through unprotected sex between a man and a woman, between men and multiple sexual partners or contacts with representatives of the sex industry. About 5% of adults exposed to the disease of chronic hepatitis.
  • A more common way of infection is through the reuse of infected syringes, medical and cosmetic institutions, and among drug users. Infection with hepatitis b virus may occur during operations, medical procedures, dental treatment, getting a tattoo or using blades and sharp objects, infected blood of a sick person.

The symptoms of hepatitis b

When infected with hepatitis B often leads to acute form of the disease. If human immunity is lowered or infection of child at birth, the acute form of hepatitis flows into a chronic disease with a gradual onset of symptoms. Latent hepatitis b can last from 2 to 6 months. Symptoms of acute type of hepatitis b depend on the form of the disease is subclinical, Busselton, jaundice, cholestatic and protracted.

Hepatitis B at the initial stage is similar to a manifestation of influenza. There is a high temperature, headache, General weakness and fatigue, aching joints and muscles. The symptoms increase gradually. A few days later there is a loss of appetite, occurs jaundice, pain in the right hypochondrium, nausea and vomiting, urine becomes dark and the feces discolored. After the onset of jaundice the patient’s condition becomes better and he gradually recovers. In almost all cases in the presence of high immunity of hepatitis b ends in complete recovery of the patient.

Signs of chronic hepatitis b is the absence of jaundice and of the initial symptoms. Over time, increases the liver, because of this there is pain or a feeling of heaviness in the right hypochondrium, disorder of the digestive system. Then begins the jaundice, there is itching of the skin, raised temperature and fever. The patient is reduced appetite, nausea and belching after eating, bloating, diarrhea, weakness and malaise, high sweating, poor tolerance to intense physical stress.

A chronic form of hepatitis b is dangerous that slowly destroys liver cells and leads to proliferation of connective tissue on dead cells. In consequence, the liver can no longer cope with their main features and the person may die.

The treatment of hepatitis b

Treatment of hepatitis depends on the virus type and form of the disease. In acute hepatitis b is supportive and detoxification therapy, which helps remove liver toxins and restore its tissue. Antiviral therapy is not applied. It is extremely important to follow a strict diet, eliminating from the diet fried, smoked, spicy and salty dishes. This is especially true of alcohol, which are harmful to the liver.

Treatment of chronic hepatitis b provides a comprehensive and individual approach. For this purpose of antiviral drugs alpha interferon and lamivudine, adefovir. Thanks to the drugs reduced the rate of reproduction of viruses eliminated their presence and accumulation in liver cells. Antiviral drugs may be poorly tolerated by patients, but treatment must not be interrupted. Therapy can last six months to several years. In rare cases, the treatment can be repeated.

About half of the patients who underwent the treatment of hepatitis b with interferon-alpha, completely cured of the disease. In the case of partial destruction of the virus, the drug can significantly reduce the number of viruses and their reproduction, which has a positive effect on the patient’s condition. In the fight against hepatitis b may apply a drugs to protect the liver cells and means to strengthen the immune system.

Today is a special drug for the treatment of hepatitis b has not yet been established. Do not believe those clinics that offer the new drugs that are actively fighting the hepatitis b virus and improves the processes in the liver. These funds are questionable, since were not in need of validation and testing. In addition to interferon and other drugs for the treatment of liver cirrhosis does not yet exist, everything is in the development stage. A chronic form of hepatitis b is not fully cured, but therapy helps improve the patient’s condition and prolong his life.

Prevention of hepatitis B

A key tool in the prevention of hepatitis B is vaccination. Every child in infants should be vaccinated against hepatitis B immediately after birth, within one day. After the first vaccination at birth, the child must re-do two or three vaccinations to complete the process of vaccination. Vaccination against hepatitis B can be done in two ways

  • truhtanova scheme of vaccination against hepatitis B – the first vaccine is after birth and the second and third is introduced together with the first and third doses of vaccinations against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus
  • chetyrehrazovoe vaccination after the first dose vaccination at birth introduces three doses of monovalent or combined vaccinations that are made with other vaccines in routine immunization of children.

Full vaccination against hepatitis B allows to produce protective antibodies in more than 95% of newborns, older children and adolescents. Virus protection continues for 20 years, and there may be life. Therefore, it is not recommended revaccination among those people who were trandatebuy scheme of vaccination against hepatitis b If unvaccinated children and adolescents up to 18 years living in poor environmental conditions, they must get the vaccine. Also in these countries vaccination against hepatitis B should get people from risk groups.

In schools and other educational institutions should be educational work on the theme of intimate relationships, about the need to protect themselves during sexual relations and also about the danger of drug addiction and its consequences in the form of hepatitis and other diseases. Prevention of hepatitis B included maintaining personal hygiene, avoid use of other people’s sharp and cutting objects (scissors, razor), with the exception of unprotected sexual contacts with unknown persons.

In medical and cosmetic institutions employees must comply with the security measures, carry out disinfection of the hands and treatment for medical devices to work with patients only with gloved hands. The blood of each donor should be tested for the presence of hepatitis viruses. When you visit the salon tattoo you need to check the documents and the presence of the processed devices, the master needs to do a tattoo only in latex gloves.

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Hepatitis b is a viral liver disease caused by infection with hepadnaviruses hepatitis b characterized by the development of infection in acute, formose dysfunction of the liver or chronic with the development of cirrhosis and liver cancer (hepatic carcinoma).


Hepatitis b is a viral liver disease caused by infection with hepadnaviruses hepatitis b characterized by the development of infection in acute, formose dysfunction of the liver or chronic with the development of cirrhosis and liver cancer (hepatic carcinoma).