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Hemolytic anemia

  1. Reasons
  2. Symptoms
  3. Diagnosis
  4. Treatment
  5. Complications
  6. Prevention


Hemolytic anemia

the combination of rare diseases, which is characterized by a reduced life expectancy of red blood cells because of their intensive destruction. The destruction of red blood cells occurs faster than the time to receive the new cells.

The disease can be divided into several forms

  • a congenital anemia characterized by breakdown of red blood cells as a result of genetic defects

    • membranacei of red blood cells at the genetic level is broken the shell of the red blood cells, leading to their rapid collapse
    • enzymopathies (fermentopathy) a quick breakdown caused by deficient activity of erythrocyte enzymes (most commonly glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase)
    • hemoglobinopathies variety of anemias that are associated with disorders of hemoglobin protein structure at the genetic level
  • acquired hemolytic anemia is a disorder in which the bone marrow is healthy maturation of red blood cells, but they can no long survive due to some disease or impacts of a different nature on the body

    • a defect in the membrane of erythrocytes disease that is extremely rare. For it is characteristic of the disintegration of red blood cells during sleep
    • wearethatfamily pathology is a phenomenon in which the cause of the collapse is not a violation within the cell, and damage a variety of external factors
    • immunogeneticheskie anemia (autoimmune hemolytic anemia and izoimmunnaya) arise from the fact that the body produces antibodies that destroy its own red blood cells. The reason for this may be a violation of the immune system (e.g. cancer of the blood)
    • anemia, the occurrence of which is associated with increased destruction of red blood cells in the spleen (for example,

      )

    • anemia occurs due to the mechanical damage of the membranes of red blood cells (found in the prosthetic heart valves)
  • anemia caused by impact

    • toxic substances on the erythrocytes (for example, poisoning poisons, heavy metals, lead)
    • when an infectious-toxic lesion of the body (through exposure to parasites)
    • anemia resulting from lack of vitamin E in the body, which directly affects the strength of the membrane of the erythrocyte.

Reasons

On the occurrence of hemolytic anemia can impact the following reasons

Congenital anemia

  • hereditary hemolytic anemia, in which the defective gene is passed on to the child from one or both parents
  • spontaneous mutation at the genetic level during the period of fetal development leads to the development of hemolytic anemia in children.

In the case of the presence of the defective gene that causes the disease in both patches chromosomes, we are talking about homozygous form. Chances to live to a ripe age of patients with this diagnosis is almost zero.

Acquired hemolytic anemia

  • result from prolonged exposure to chemicals or medications in the body
  • anemia occurs due to the influence on the organism of infections caused by bacteria or parasites (e.g.,
    )
  • anemia can cause extensive burns for which the poisoning of the organism by poisons
  • the reasons associated with the immune system, for example, incompatible blood transfusions, develop antibodies against their own red blood cells, mechanical damage to red blood cells, lack of vitamin E in the body.

Symptoms

Hemolytic anemia symptoms are pronounced and are as follows

  • skin and mucous membranes of the mouth and eyes become pale or jaundiced color (due to the presence of breakdown products of blood cells in the body)
  • the heartbeat quickens
  • there is a General weakness in the body, fatigue, shortness of breath
  • increased liver and spleen
  • increases the level of bilirubin and develop jaundice (skin and whites of the eyes, saliva and lacrimal fluid acquires a lemon color)
  • the body temperature rises, there are bouts of dizziness
  • sometimes observed disorder of consciousness and muscle cramps
  • a characteristic symptom is the increase in blood density, so that there is poor blood circulation, oxygenation occurs poorly, clots, impaired blood flow to internal organs.

Diagnosis

To determine the hemolytic anemia diagnosis is carried out as follows

  • the analysis of complaints

    • how long have observed such symptoms as weakness, General malaise of the body. What color of the skin (yellowness indicates the presence of anemia)? What color is the mucous whites of the eyes, there is no darkening of urine
    • the analysis of the anamnesis of disease was not observed this disease in someone from the family, not whether the organism to the influence of chemicals, there are no blood diseases or immune system
  • If you suspect a hemolytic anemia prescribe the following tests
    • clinical analysis of blood to determine the level of hemoglobin and erythrocytes in blood
    • analysis of blood and urine for the determination of bilirubin
    • investigation of the shape of red blood cells, so anemia can develop due to the irregular shape of red blood cells
    • Coombs method, which determine the reaction of antibodies against the red blood cells
    • ultrasound examination of the area of the peritoneum to determine the size of the liver and spleen
    • for the study of the hematopoietic system do a bone marrow puncture
    • consultation at the therapist.

Treatment

Hemolytic anemia treatment is carried out using the following methods

  • are appointed of drugs such as corticosteroids, which reduce inflammation and immunosuppressants (administered in the event of a failure in the immune system, to suppress autoimmune reactions)
  • if the disease is a lack of enzymes in the red blood cells, that the missing enzymes are prescribed to take medication
  • if the disease arose from the destruction of erythrocytes in the spleen, there shall be a surgical removal of the spleen splenectomy
  • the plasmapheresis procedure, which is based on removing from blood plasma, which contains toxic substances and waste products of metabolism
  • transfusion of donor erythrocytes cleared. Cleansing consists of removing foreign protein from the surface of red blood cells
  • a bone marrow transplant.

Complications

  • cardiovascular failure due to a number of factors that affect the contractility of the heart
  • acute renal failure
  • ruptures of the spleen
  • a heart attack
  • the syndrome of intravascular coagulation, in which hemorrhage occurs in various internal organs, skin and mucous integument and body cavity
  • anemic coma.

Prevention

In the case of hereditary predisposition need to consult at the doctor-genetics at the stage of pregnancy planning and pre-determine the RH factor of blood. It is recommended to take measures to strengthen the immune system, namely

  • the correct fractional power
  • the rejection of bad habits
  • compliance with the sleep mode
  • stay in the fresh air
  • the use of vitamins in the autumn-winter period.