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Heart failure


Heart failure

a pathological condition of the body in which there is an inability of the heart to provide the entire body, particularly the organs and tissues, the volume of blood needed for normal working conditions and adequate functioning. Current data indicate that, at the current time, the disease had become more widespread among women.

Classification

The speed of disease development allows to divide heart failure into two basic forms

  • acute heart failure is characterized by rapid development, the development period does not exceed a few hours. Signs of heart failure in the form of the following pulmonary edema, asthma, heart or even cardiogenic shock. Causes of heart failure occurring in the acute form, directly related to the condition and functioning of the heart. The development of acute forms of heart failure can influence diseases such as left ventricular wall rupture, myocardial infarction, acute insufficiency of the heart valves
  • chronic heart failure is characterized by gradual development of the progress of the disease, which duration may last up to several years. To trigger the development of this type of disease can a variety of heart defects, respiratory insufficiency chronic anemia, which lasted a long period of time, hypertension.

By far the most popular method for the separation of chronic heart failure in the species is the method that was proposed for use by cardiologists in the USA.

There are four basic classes of chronic heart failure

  • the first class is characterized by the fact that the patient begins to feel shortness of breath when climbing to the third floor and above. While there is no impact on the level of physical activity
  • a distinctive feature of the second class of chronic heart failure is the appearance of shortness of breath during quick walking or when climbing to the first floor. Physical activity drops a bit. In most cases, the symptomatic picture of congestive heart failure occur during exercise
  • a characteristic feature of the third class of diseases is the appearance of symptoms of heart failure during small loads. In most cases the symptoms appear during the walk. In a state of tranquility the symptoms of heart failure do not have a tendency to manifestation
  • with the development of fourth grade symptomatic picture of chronic heart failure comes at a time when a person is in a state of tranquility. In this case, the development of the disease the slightest load on the body leads to serious dysfunctions of the heart and cardiovascular system.

Today’s medicine defines heart failure in the chronic form, the most common complications associated with the functioning of the cardiovascular system.

The localization of damage allows to distinguish three main types of heart failure

  • left ventricular the reason for developing this type of disease is the overload of the left ventricle. Also, this form of heart failure can be triggered by a decrease in contractile behavior of the myocardium. This decrease may occur after myocardial infarction.
  • right ventricular type of disease occurs due to an overload of the right ventricle. With this type of heart failure blood stagnates in the large circle and small circle served its insufficient quantity. The cause of the overload is considered to be transferred human pulmonary hypertension. The final stage of the disease is the development of degenerative forms of right ventricular failure. In this case there are the following symptoms swelling, symptoms of the condition of depletion of the body, for example, cachexia
  • mixed type of heart failure occurs when an overload of the right and left ventricles.

Heart failure also klassificeret in the following varieties

  • myocardial type evident in the case of direct damage of the cardiac walls. This form of the disease has a direct relationship with the processes of energy metabolism in the heart muscle, therefore, it observed variations in the processes of contraction and relaxation of cardiac muscle
  • overload form of heart failure form of diseases resulting from overload of the heart during operation. The reason for the development can be heart defects and disease causing deflection of blood flow
  • combination type the basis for the development of this type are considered to be an increased load on the heart and direct myocardial damage.

Reasons

In most cases, the occurrence of heart failure is directly related to abnormalities in the functioning of the heart muscle in pumping process of blood or damage to her structure.

There are the following factors provoke the development of the disease

  • high blood pressure (hypertension blood)
  • coronary heart disease
  • various heart defects.

Data specialists suggests that the first reason that causes this disease in women is hypertension. For men, the main threat is a coronary heart disease. However, there are many other illnesses and factors can lead to the development of human heart failure, for example, arrhythmia, diabetes mellitus, Smoking, alcohol abuse, myocarditis various forms of cardiomyopathy.

Some of the causes of this disease can trigger the occurrence of cardiac asthma pathological complication, which poses a risk to human life due to asthma attacks, which is accompanied by this pathology.

Symptoms

Determination of the symptomatic picture is depending on what area of the heart subjected to defeat and damage.

The main manifestations of the symptomatic picture of the disease are shortness of breath, the appearance of cyanosis (the gradual process of lividity, since the plots at the greatest distance from the heart, for example, toes), hemoptysis, wheezing, dry, a tendency of the limbs to swelling, pain in the right hypochondrium showing the stagnation of blood in the hepatic veins, the heightened state of fatigue.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis of heart failure includes the examination with the appropriate specialist and a number of procedures to determine the causes of pathological processes.

Methods of diagnosis of heart failure

  • analysis of human blood
  • the procedure of electrocardiogram. In the usual case is when a person is in a calm state, but in some cases, the ECG during physical activity and stress on the body
  • conducting echocardiograms of the patient
  • the implementation of the radiography of the chest (thorax).

Sometimes the diagnosis of heart failure is carried out with the use of devices based on innovative information technologies and computer resources.

Treatment

The main methods by which the treatment of heart failure

  • prevention and elimination of the overload of the heart muscle with drugs that reduce blood pressure. There are drugs that reduce heart rate
  • liquidation manifestations of the symptomatic picture of the disease. In this case, the drugs used depend on the form of occurrence of heart failure
  • the destruction of the impact of the disease. To implement this goal are mainly used drugs group of diuretics to facilitate withdrawal of excess fluid during urination.

In the absence of the results of the medication can be used surgical methods for the elimination of manifestations of the disease.

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