one of the most common foot deformities. Characterized by flattening of the arches of the foot, resulting in a loss of shock absorbing function. This disease affects all people regardless of gender and age. Flat feet in children at birth is very rare, and usually the result of what happens inside the womb malformation of the structural elements of the foot.
There are 3 forms of the disease
- the longitudinal flat feet. Characterized in that the longitudinal arch of the foot is subjected to flattening, resulting in an increase of its length
- transverse flatfoot. Is characterized by the fact that there is a flattening of the front of the foot, whereby the foot becomes wider
- combo. Combines the symptoms specific to the above forms.
Depending on the causes distinguish between
- congenital disease appears inside the womb
- purchased. In this case, the disease can occur at any age and, in turn, is divided into
- traumatic. May occur due to fractures or soft tissue injuries
- paralytic. As a consequence of paralysis of the foot due to certain diseases (e.g. polio), or as a result of injury
- rachitic. Acquired as a result of suffering rickets (a disease that causes bone deformity)
- static. Purchased due to the large loads on the foot (obesity, exercise).
The degree of flatfoot
Depending on the complexity of the disease can determine the severity of violations with the foot. It is necessary to do x-rays then the doctor conducts a study of the picture by holding the three lines that connect into a triangle. Special calculations are made to determine the angle of the longitudinal arch of the foot and severity.
For the longitudinal form distinguish 3 severity of the disease
- first degree is characterized by a slight dysfunction of the foot, often resulting in fatigue and pain in foot when pressure is applied. At this stage, the bone deformation is not observed
- second degree is characterized by frequent pain and a deformity in the region of the talus-navicular joint
- the third degree is characterized by a strong deformation of the foot in all joints. Accompanied by severe pain when walking.
Forms the severity of the disease when the transverse platypodia
- first degree. There is a deviation of the thumb at the angle not more than 20 degrees. Is characterized by rapid fatigue, formation of corns (a thickening of the skin caused by rubbing shoes) and painful sensations. You may experience a slight bulging of the bone on the thumb
- second degree. The thumb is bent inwards at an angle of 35 degrees. Corns grow and stiffen, the foot to become wider when walking there are severe pain and the bone of the big toe bulges out significantly
- third degree. The angle of curvature of the thumb may exceed 40 degrees. Stop in the area of the fingers fully spread, the other fingers bent inwards, making any load very painful and heavy.
The flatfoot symptoms are as follows
- pain in the feet
- the change in shape stop
- fatigue in legs towards evening
- swelling of the ankles
- statiunii shoes with one hand
- stop changing the size and appearance.
The longitudinal shape is also observed
- heaviness in the legs, cramps, fatigue
- pain of the ankles and legs
- deformation (elongation) of the feet, swelling, back pain. It is noted shortness of movement of the ankle joint. There is a need for special shoes.
Cross has the following symptoms
- the deformation of the fingers due to the disappearance of the transverse arch stop
- pain in the area of the forefoot, the roughness of the skin
- the fingers take the form of a hook, curving towards the bottom.
Signs of flatfoot is quite characteristic, and in the case of determining any changes should immediately seek medical help.
For proper diagnosis you need to pass an examination and consultation with a podiatrist.
The necessary research
- radiographs in two projections with the use of the load in the standing position. Be held to determine the angle and height of the arch of the foot
- computer and simple plantography. This method is based on the study of imprints of the soles
- podometry method (Friedland). Helps to determine the ratio of height to length of the foot.
With flat feet, treatment should be started as soon as he was diagnosed as complete recovery is only possible in childhood, and the detection of this disease in adults prescribe a comprehensive treatment, the purpose of which is the removal of pain and strengthening the muscles and ligaments of the foot. This helps to stop the deformation process and prevent complications.
The main method of treatment exercises. Physical therapy and medications help to relieve pain. Massage of the feet, including walking barefoot on a raised surface, good for blood circulation that helps with swelling. Also, depending on the type and severity of the disease, is shown wearing orthopedic insoles and special shoes.
For advanced and progressive cases, and traumatic form of the disease is prescribed surgery.
Often prescribe physiotherapy, foot bath, mud therapy, electrotherapy and Spa treatment.
Prevention should be life. There are various physical exercises that help prevent disease. Also, special attention should be paid to the shoes (should be comfortable, not cramped). The long walk, you can use orthotics. Walking barefoot on the sand or gravel helps to relax the feet and relieve fatigue.