is the collective term used in medicine is a group of infectious diseases characterized by disorders on the background of fever and intoxication. Scientists have divided the disease typhoid in the following types typhoid typhus relapsing fever with its own distinctive features and manifestations.
An infectious disease caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi. This microorganism quite resistant to various types of environment, including to low temperatures. The bacterium survives for several months in different conditions and in food also actively propagated. You can protect yourself by boiling or disinfectants. According to statistics, most often the bacteria are transmitted through dirty hands, sewage or insects. Sick people and carriers of the bacteria, such as infected foods are the most dangerous sources of infection.
The causative agent of typhoid
When ingested, the bacterium primarily affects the intestine, spleen, liver and kidneys. Further, the bacterium multiplies, forming small ulcers and inflammation. As a consequence of the inflammatory process are substances which poison the nervous and cardiovascular system. As a rule, the greatest number of cases of typhoid fever observed during the summer and fall, but exceptions also occur.
The incubation period of the disease lasts from one to three weeks. Primarily, the disease is accompanied by severe headache and high fever. Also among the symptoms noted poor sleep, redness of the eyes, dry skin and high temperature. Later, pain in the calves of the legs, lower back, also slightly swells the stomach and, in some cases, tormented by constipation.
In the second week marked loss of consciousness, extremely high body temperature, the patient begins to rave. The disease is accompanied by pale pink spots. If they push disappear for a while.
Third week is the turning point. The patient either recovers or suffers from aggravation of symptoms. The most dangerous symptom is bleeding in the intestines, which tells about the opening of typhoid ulcers. Upon detection of the slightest hemorrhage are urgently needed to call an ambulance, but before her arrival should be put on the patient’s abdomen with the ice.
This is a group that includes an acute infectious disease caused by spirochetes of the genus Borrelia. Relapsing fever is transmitted to humans from infected rodents by ticks belonging to the family Argasidae, the village and the Persian ticks. This type of typhoid registered in the territory of Asian countries, in Russia, in Europe, in North and South America.
This form of fever is not as dangerous as, for example, typhoid fever, nevertheless, often there are complications in the form of suppuration of legs and ribs with subsequent amputation. Disease this type of fever is easier than typhoid fever, and after recovering the body create immunity.
During infection, borrelii infect cells of the lymphoid-macrophage system, and then enter the blood. Due to bactericidal properties of blood, borrelii are destroyed, which leads to the release of endotoxins and damage to the circulatory system along with the Central nervous system. Symptoms of toxicity include fever and necrosis of the liver and Celesti.
The first symptoms of infection of relapsing fever appear suddenly. These include intermittent fever, which later goes into a fever with a headache. Also noticed complaints about the weakness of the body and a feeling of weakness, in some cases, there were complaints of pain in the muscles and joints, nausea and vomiting. The disease is accompanied by rapid pulse and increased body temperature, dry skin.
Later in the list of symptoms of delirium appear, the skin may be covered with lesions, and on the site of the bite often appears maroon papule. During a fever in a few patients, symptoms of heart disease, bronchitis or pneumonia.
The fever usually lasts from two to six days, then comes the improvement of health of the patient. But relapsing fever is characterized by recurrent bouts every week.
Disease of the infectious type. The symptoms include fever, severe intoxication, Central nervous and vascular system, rosealina-petechial rash.
This kind of typhus is found in many developing countries. It is caused by a parasite Rickettsia of Provasca. Unlike typhoid fever, the parasite is stationary and can be preserved only in the dried state, and is only transmitted from an infected person.
The infection vectors are often the lice are infected when they bite a sick person, and carry the infection, they begin on the 56th day after that. As for a healthy person, the infection occurs through the smallest skin lesions.
After an incubation period, and it lasts 12 weeks, should an acute reaction. Infected notice headache, fatigue, hypersensitivity, agitation, insomnia, and fever. Spots appear Chiari-Avtsyn, high temperature up to 40 C, conjunctival blood vessels expand, the redder the skin of the face and neck. On the 5th day noticed typhus rash.
Typhus is dangerous for its complications. These include pneumonia, otitis media, thrombosis and other diseases.
Treatment of typhoid
During treatment of typhoid fever use of Levomicetinu as the main antimicrobials, prescribed up to 10 to 12 days or until normalization of temperature. Additional use of 5% glucose solution and isotonic sodium chloride solution, and in complex forms of the disease corticosteroids. The patient must comply with bed rest of 1.52 weeks.
During treatment, relapsing fever bed rest supplemented with antipyretic, plenty of fluids and cardiovascular drugs. The main means of treatment are tetracycline antibiotics and penicillin.
In the treatment of typhus, the patient is placed in hospital where he is under medical supervision, since it may have such desires as, for example, to run away or jump out the window. Usually this happens at night. Also, the patient can develop collapse. In addition to the above reasons for the placement of the patient in the hospital, you also need to enter a number of remedies from antibiotics and cardiovascular means to of sleeping pills and tranquilizers.