the inflammatory process affects the mucosa in the oesophagus. Almost always occurs with diseases of the digestive organs and, less commonly, with diseases of tonsils and some of the sinuses.
Esophagitis divided into two groups
Acute esophagitis occurs after exposure to the causative agent for a short time. There are several groups of such factors
- infectious (complications of various diseases)
- allergic to food
- physical (microtrauma or damage of various types)
- chemical (the result of exposure to chemicals that manifest in the form of burns). This type of esophagitis affects the lower part of the esophagus and is most often seen paired with gastric illness.
Chronic esophagitis often appears after acute esophagitis and, rarely, as a separate process. At the time of its occurrence is frequently noted temporary exacerbation and attenuation of symptoms (remission). Assuming the development of the disease or incorrect treatment may develop esophageal stenosis (narrowing).
The development of esophagitis provoked a large number of different causes and factors, so today there are the following types
- reflux esophagitis esophagitis is a kind of in which the damaged mucosa of the esophagus. The causative agent of this form is considered to be the process of penetration into the esophagus stomach or duodenal content type
- form of infectious esophagitis in the whole process, which takes place on the basis of the transferred infectious diseases, passed in the acute form (scarlet fever, influenza, etc.)
- the chemical form of the disease caused by damage to the intestinal mucosa substances and chemical irritants of nature
- esophagitis physical type caused by physical damage and the impact on the mucosa of the oesophagus (burns, injuries caused by bodies of a foreign origin, etc.)
- the alimentary form of the disease caused by excessive use of hot or cold foods or products with high sharpness, abuse of alcohol
- esophagitis congestive type against the backdrop of the diverticulum, stenosis or achalasia processes in the oesophagus
- esophagitis allergic origin caused by allergic reactions
- professional esophagitis caused by exposure to various toxic substances.
Acute esophagitis is divided into three levels, based on the depth of penetration of infection
- I degree affected mucosa of the esophagus. Pathological changes do not occur
- Grade II appear lesions, such as ulcer or erosion, also changes the mucous membrane
- The III degree is observed infection of the submucosal layers of the esophagus, tissue necrosis, were observed complications such as perforation of the esophagus and internal bleeding.
However, chronic esophagitis is divided into grade IV, starting from the level of destruction and signs
- I degree observed in the processes of hyperemia and edematous processes in the mucosa of the esophagus. Erosion defects are not observed at this stage
- II the extent of observed isolated small erosions on the mucosa (edema)
- The III degree is observed bleeding of the mucous membrane, the combination of a few pockets of erosion
- IV the degree of combined erosions and deep ulcers that defects are distributed on the circumference 34 of the esophagus, the mucosa begins to bleed. The disease at this stage include swelling on the mucous membrane there is hyperemia, stricture, stenosis.
Mild esophagitis observed increase in sensitivity to eating hot or cold type.
In the case of the disease in high degree the patient complains of burning and pain within the chest after eating. In some cases, you will experience heartburn, belching or vomiting.
In the case of severe occurrence appear severe pain, heartburn, dysphagia, excessive salivation, also, vomiting may stand out viscous mucus, sometimes accompanied by blood.
The pain is sharp or burning and may radiate to the neck, between the shoulder blades in the back. In severe course of disease likely to occur, vomiting blood as a result of perforation of the esophagus.
Chronic esophagitis and reflux esophagitis is characterized by the feeling of heartburn at the end of the meal or spontaneously (usually at night). Also pain can occur when running, jumping and sudden movements. The disease often occurs together with gastric diseases.
The factors provoking development of the disease
- diseases of an infectious nature esophagitis may develop as a result of scarlet fever, diphtheria, influenza, mumps epidemic, adenovirus infection
- burns of the esophagus that are chemical in nature
- burns or damage to the esophagus traumatic nature
- too frequent exposure of the esophagus and gastrointestinal tract hot or cold food, alcohol
- reactions allergic-type.
- The factors causing the development of chronic forms of the disease
- the transfer gastroesophageal reflux disease
- the process of achalasia of the esophagus
- kardioselektivnost innate nature
- the appearance of a hernia in the esophageal region of the diaphragm
- the presence of ulcers affecting the duodenum
- frequent occurrence of vomiting.
Treatment of esophagitis
The mild form of the disease is conservative treatment.
Medicines binders and anthracite the antacids. Frequently prescribed medicines that have prokinetics and antisecretory effect.
In addition, can be used physiotherapy, therapeutic measures, the implementation of electrophoresis, coupled with the action of novocaine, a local character, endoscopic laser therapy, hyperbaric oxygenation.
In the case of occurrence of infectious diseases and acute esophagitis are welcome antibiotic and antibacterial drugs.
If symptomatic picture pronounced, or is accompanied by bleeding in the esophagus, the patient goes to the parenteral nutrition type, in which the protein gidrolizatami, amino acid mixtures, intralipid are administered intravenously. In addition, the patient undergoes therapy, which aims to eliminate intoxication.
With the presence of pronounced pain syndrome patient is prescribed analgesics. When the procedure is complete elimination of inflammation, the patient is prescribed a special diet gentle nature.
When esophagitis with bleeding occurs, apply measures with the use of hemostatic agents, anticoagulants, preparations containing aminocaproic acid group. In the case of massive blood loss is the procedure of blood transfusion or plasma transfusion. In the case of low effectiveness of treatment can be used surgical methods of treatment.
General recommendations for treatment
- correction of lifestyle Smoking cessation, alcohol abuse. The transition to a diet with the exception of fatty, spicy, spicy dishes, coffee, carbonated drinks
- exception of loads that increase intra-abdominal pressure, exercise associated with overexertion of the abdominal muscles, with the trunk bending forward
- the exception is strictly the horizontal position during sleep, it is necessary to raise the head end of the bed at 1520 cm
- after eating to avoid bending forward and not go for 1.5 hours.