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Esophageal cancer

  1. Symptoms
  2. Treatment


Esophageal cancer

the tumor is malignant, which arises due to abnormal changes in squamous epithelial tissue of the mucous membrane of the oesophagus.

Pathology occurs in 610 times more frequently in smoker compared with non-smokers. This is due to the maintenance of Smoking increasing the risk arising adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, which then leads to squamous cell cancer. You should know that those people who combine Smoking with alcohol, the risk of cancer of the esophagus can grow up to 100 times.

Precancerous conditions

  • tiles keratoderma palmoplantaris forms epidemiologicheskogo. The disease is rare and hereditary, arising from the consequences of hyperkeratosis of hands and feet and papillomas of the esophagus. The disease usually can be transmitted in an autosomal dominant way. On the basis of Tolosa noted the occurrence of atypical squamous epithelium and inflammatory processes that lead to cancer of the esophagus
  • syndrome Plummer-Vinson in his feature includes iron deficiency anemia,

    , splenomegaly. You should know that 10% of all patients with this syndrome may occur with esophageal cancer or throat cancer

  • chemical burn of the esophagus causing stricture and may lead to cancer of the esophagus, even if it takes ten years. These tumors are localized with the region of the middle third of the esophagus
  • the disease, which is a violation of the motor functionality of the esophagus with further origin of pathological spasm of the lower esophageal sphincter. People suffering from this disease have the cancer risk of about 40%

  • Barrett’s esophagus, the disease manifested due to the formation of cylindrical epithelial tissue in the distal esophagus. So, on the basis of this disease, patients undergo a 50-percent risk of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus.

Symptoms

The disease cancer of the esophagus symptoms has those characteristics which include weakness, fatigue, decreased performance, irritability, and deterioration or loss of appetite, weight loss, anemia, fever.

There are local symptoms of cancer of the esophagus, which include the pathology of dysphagia, derived from the scratchy sensation in the retrosternal area, and also the feeling of stuck food to the esophagus. In addition, patients may complain of the inconvenient ingestion of food, because dysphagia signify permanent obstruction esophageal patency of the food.

If the patient noted a small tumor, as a rule, it is the wall of the esophagus in the area of destruction due to their elastic origin, is able to stretch and smooth transmission of food bolus in the lower divisions. It is believed that a person must be a lose 70% of the circumference of the esophagus for the origin of dysphagia.

On the second place by the frequency of symptoms is weight loss, which is found in about 65% of patients. Can accompany and pathology of dysphagia.

Pain may occur in 30% of patients. As a rule, the pain may be independent or related with swallowing food and it is both permanent and periodic and localized in the epigastric or retrosternal region. If the pain are observed between blades, then the patient may germination of the tumor outside of the esophagus.

The prognosis of the disease cancer of the esophagus can be favorable, because death for the last ten years decreased to 34% as a result of the radical surgery. So, after this surgery, patients survive on 50% more than 5 years ago.

Conducting postoperative radiation therapy can reduce the frequency of local recurrence after radical surgery from 40 to 25%, but you should know that there is no increase in survival. Because of the combination of surgery with irradiation may cause various complications as radiation fibrosis of the lungs, bleeding of their grafts. But if post-operative chemotherapy for

in this case, a good performance.

The disease cancer of the esophagus treatment can be combined, which is shown in the b stage of cancer. So, this therapy is included and preoperative chemoradiotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy after surgery. Patients diagnosed with stage IV cancer, conduct equipment chemoradiation palliative and symptomatic treatment.

In addition to the above percentages, you should know that a large contingent of people with cancer of the esophagus life can be reduced due to accompanying pathology of alimentary dystrophy associated with anorexia.

Stage

The disease cancer of the esophagus, the classification has 4 stages. So, on stage there is a small marking of the tumor, germinating mucosal and submucosal layers. The passage of food more difficult. The absence of metastasis. In stage II tumor invades the muscle layer, but not beyond the limit of the esophagus. Disturbed esophageal patency. Stage III is characterized by the presence of the tumor occupying a large area of the esophagus and penetrating its walls. Marked lymph node metastasis. At stage IV noticed tumor invasion of the layers of the walls of the esophagus beyond its limit. The cancer has spread to nearby organs.

Treatment

Treatment of esophageal cancer is combined. So, the first stage includes a gamma-therapeutic methods, followed by a second stage surgery.

For the treatment of the disease cancer of the esophagus, the operation is performed in the affected lower third of the esophagus. When this occurs, regeneration of the lumen of the body.

There are two types

  • removal of the affected area in pathology in the lower esophagus. Perhaps cutting off the upper part of the stomach, followed by the use of the esophageal-gastric fistula and inserting the esophageal end into gastric stump
  • if the disease cancer of the esophagus characterized by signs of lesion of the mid esophagus, then apply the second type of surgical intervention in this pathology surgery Tareka. So, the patient is placed in a gastrostomy parenteral nutrition, followed by manipulation to remove the esophagus completely.

Prevention

To diagnosis of esophageal cancer has not confirmed his presence, we need prevention of this disease and immediate treatment to the doctor in difficulty swallowing.

Because of the disease esophageal cancer causes are such as abuse of tobacco and alcohol products, for the prevention of this pathology appropriate course will be abandoning those habits.

In addition, the desired power correction, because in the case of abuse is too hot food or various marinades (due to subsequent vitamin deficiency) may cause malignant pathology of the esophagus.