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Epilepsy

  1. The causes of epilepsy
  2. Symptoms of epilepsy
  3. Treatment of epilepsy
  4. Prevention of epilepsy


Epilepsy

is a nervous system disease characterized by persistent seizures.

Epilepsy is fairly common, to 16 years this disease occurs in 7 children out of 1000. In adults epilepsy occurs 1 to 200. Epilepsy occurs in children aged 5-15 years and has a tendency to progression with a gradual frequency and severity of seizures. First, the intervals between attacks can be several months and years, then they meet 1-2 times a month, and then to 1-2 times a week. With the development of the disease the manifestation of seizures is accompanied by various symptoms.

There are only about 40 different types of epilepsy and types of seizures. The most common form is temporal lobe epilepsy in which the lesion is epileptic activity in the temporal lobe of the brain. One form of epileptic manifestations arising on a background of chronic alcohol dependence, is alcohol epilepsy. It is often found in people who are long time drink alcohol, causing brain disorders occur. The risk of epilepsy is that in case of untimely care, the patient may choke during a seizure.

The causes of epilepsy

Until now the exact cause of epilepsy is not established. It is assumed that in most cases it is a hereditary disease, as more than 40% of epileptics have relatives with this disorder.

The causes of epilepsy can be associated with different brain damage

  • various brain injury
  • viral and parasitic diseases affecting the brain, for example, meningitis
  • the occurrence of tumours and abscesses in the brain
  • insufficient blood flow to the brain and oxygen starvation
  • multiple sclerosis
  • antiphospholipid syndrome
  • taking certain medications from depression and mental disorders, antibiotics
  • regular consumption of drugs of chemical origin
  • hereditary diseases of metabolism.

In 70% of cases, doctors cannot determine the cause of the disease and the appearance of seizures. Studies have shown that brain tissue from patients with epilepsy are more sensitive to chemical changes under the influence of various irritants than a healthy person. The brain of a sick person healthy and can get the same signal, resulting in attack or in normal state, nothing happens.

Symptoms of epilepsy

Symptoms of epilepsy is easy to recognize, as they are manifested in the form of an acute attack. It occurs suddenly, without being dependent on external factors. Sometimes you can set the time of the manifestation of the epileptic state. The patient has weakness, disorder of sleep and appetite, headache and irritability.

The most prominent symptom of epilepsy before the seizure is the appearance of the aura. It is manifested in all patients equally. Its duration is a few seconds, after which the person loses consciousness, may fall, often cries out because of the glottis spasm occurs during the contraction of the muscles of chest and diaphragm. Along with this phenomenon arise tonic cramps, during which the body and limbs are in tension, stretch and head throws. Breathing becomes irregular, so the veins in the neck swell. The face becomes very pale, the jaws are compressed against the effects of seizures.

The tonic phase of the seizure lasts about 20 seconds, followed by clonic convulsions, in which the muscles of the body, limbs and neck are moving Tacloban. This phase of the seizure lasts about 3 minutes, often breathing becomes hoarse and loud as mouth saliva accumulates, and the language sinks. His mouth stands foam, often with blood, as the patient during the attack of biting the cheek and tongue. Gradually the spasms become weaker and disappear completely, the body relaxes.

In this phase of epilepsy the patient does not respond to any stimuli even if they are strong. Pupils are maximally dilate and do not react to light, the patient does not respond to movement. The deep reflexes and protective type does not appear, but in many cases it can cause involuntary urination. Then, the person can fall into a sleep for a few hours. For each form and type of epilepsy characterized by its peculiar symptoms, but all the observed attacks.

In this condition the person may commit unknowingly and illogical things, presenting a danger to themselves and others. After the attack, he starts to do normal things, because they do not remember what happened. May appear hallucinations, nervous breakdown and a split personality, you experience panic attacks or relaxed state. The patient may suddenly jump up and somewhere to run, talking to himself.

In chronic alcoholics is often observed in alcoholic epilepsy. It is characterized by seizures that occur at any time. First, a person loses consciousness, his face becomes very pale and then turn blue. During the attack his mouth foaming, vomiting. Gradually the spasms cease, consciousness is restored, but after the attack the patient immediately falls asleep for a while.

Treatment of epilepsy

In some cases, the treatment of epilepsy can give a full recovery. Modern medicine offers many medications and methods that improve the patient’s condition. With proper treatment the patient noted reduction in the frequency of seizures or their complete elimination, a person can lead a full life.

The most common treatment of epilepsy is the tablets are affecting a particular part of the brain of the patient, depending on the lesion of the brain. From drugs, there are side effects, so the patient is constantly on the account at the doctor. For children, the dose of pills increased gradually, and from time to time adjusted.

Special attention during the treatment of epilepsy should be paid to pregnant and lactating women. They may not sharply reduce the medication of epilepsy. In this case, it is necessary to pass the examination, so the doctor prescribed a certain rate of the drug.

In some cases of antiepileptic medicines do not help, so doctors resort to surgery, which removes the diseased part of the brain. This type of surgery is indicated in patients with difficult forms of epilepsy for whom conventional methods of therapy. When the disease is necessary to observe a mode of sleep, to relax, not to listen to loud music, exclude hard liquor, Smoking and heavy food.

If you saw a man during the attack, he needs to help. It is important to remember that he knows nothing and has no feelings. The seizure continues for several minutes.

First aid for epileptic seizure

  • not to restrain the convulsions and movements of the patient
  • it is not necessary to touch people and move it to another location, except in cases of life-threatening
  • you can’t unclench your teeth to the person during a seizure
  • during an attack you can’t do CPR or heart massage, the patient should be placed on a flat surface and under a head enclose something soft
  • to the language weren’t and saliva were not included in the airway, the head of the person lying it is necessary to turn to the side, in case of gagging you need to rotate the whole body sideways.

After the seizure has passed, the person needs to relax and sleep well. After the end of the seizure can be confused consciousness, to cause the memory to be a weakness. A person needs to recover from 5 to 30 minutes to stand up for themselves and to do their business.

The most dangerous for the patient are large seizures, which are repeated one after another without interruption. This condition is called epileptic status. It can cause the death of a man, as he stops breathing and death occurs from suffocation. In most cases, epileptic status leads to death of patients with epilepsy, if they at the time were not assisted.

Prevention of epilepsy

In idiopathic epilepsy prevention does not help. Secondary epilepsy can be prevented by some action. The patient must exclude Smoking, alcohol, strong tea and coffee, junk food, poor sleep, to avoid overheating and overcooling, being at high altitude, as well as other negative environmental factors. It is recommended to comply with milk-vegetable diet, a lot of walking in the fresh air, to exercise, to observe the regime of rest and proper sleep.

In the prevention of epilepsy may include the following recommendations

  • To avoid any damage and shake of the head to prevent the occurrence of post-traumatic epilepsy.
  • Hospitals strictly follow the process of childbirth to avoid injury during birth and future disease.
  • The use of special medication and other methods of reducing the temperature of a child who suffers from fever, to exclude the beginning convulsions that may occur.
  • In many developing countries with a tropical climate cause of epilepsy are infections of the Central nervous system. This involves the destruction of parasites and outreach for the prevention of infections. They are effective ways to combat epilepsy worldwide.

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Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases. It is characterized by recurrent sudden seizures, during which impaired motor, sensory and mental functions.


Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases. It is characterized by recurrent sudden seizures, during which impaired motor, sensory and mental functions.