specific and severe virus among humans, the disease which is transferred it is hard and the outcome 90% of cases of a lethal nature. For the first time the virus fever occurred in 1976.
The Ebola virus has five separate subtypes Sudan, Zaire, Reston, Bundibugyo, the ivory coast. The Ebola virus carries a hectic one, and depending on the immunity of human mortality is in the range 25-90%. Outbreaks often occur in spring and summer.
Ebola haemorrhagic fever is lurking in the fluids of some animals. In particular, its natural hosts are bats Epomops franqueti, Myonycteris torquata or Hypsignathus monstrosus, which can spawn in different areas and thus spread the infection. Moreover, the virus is very variable and can be transported into the cells of other organisms of animals and that only complicates its definition.
The virus spreads throughout the human body with blood and, therefore, represents a potential danger to others, which can become infected conventional nasal mucus, or by sneezing.
Repeated cases of such infection are rare.
The virus Ebola is transmitted between humans by close contact with secretions, blood, organs or other bodily fluids of an infected animal. In Africa, these animals are chimpanzees, gorillas, bats, antelopes, porcupines, monkeys. When infected person the virus is then passed from person to person and also with the secretions or fluids. And, characteristically burial ceremonies in which there is direct contact with the body of the deceased also play a role in transmission. And in seminal fluid infection can be transmitted even up to 7 weeks after the actual recovery.
Medical personnel can be infected through nursing, so you need to use specific barrier methods of care (protective mask, goggles, gloves).
The Ebola virus subtype Reston less aggressive occurs during infection of a man, and has virtually no symptoms. But this circumstance is only likely if the person has a strong immune system, so pregnant women and children can be exposed to any Ebola virus.
Initially, the virus enters the lymph nodes, the spleen, and then going vessels, internal organs it causes some changes in the kidney, brain, liver, endocrine glands, spleen and other things.
Because the disease is an acute viral form, the Ebola symptoms are accompanied by weakness, characterized by fever, pain in muscles and throat, headaches. Over time, the virus is manifested by a morbilliform rash (especially on palms and soles), fever up to near 40 degrees, vomiting and nausea, drowsiness, lethargy, violation of the liver and kidneys, diarrhea (which develops due to dehydration), sometimes the appearance of internal bleeding. By laboratory researches it is possible to identify a low level of white blood cells and platelets, which is associated with increased liver enzymes.
The person remains infected, while in his blood and liquid secretions contain virus particles. If the virus was acquired in the laboratory, then finally it will appear only on the 61st day after the infection is cured.
The latent period is the period from 2 to 21 days, when the first symptoms appear.
When viral hemorrhagic fevers spread among groups of people, the mortality varies from 25 to 90%. In this case, death usually occurs from 4-th to 27-th day of the disease, statistically, on the 10th day. The causes of death are hypovolemic shock, toxic shock, DIC (blood clotting disorder).
Diagnosis of the virus should be conducted in a differentiated way taking into account the development of other similar viruses
, hepatitis, typhoid
, rickettsiosis, relapsing fever, shigellosis,
Basic detection of the virus in the blood or urine for identification of active microorganisms.
Of course, to definitively identify the Ebola virus is possible only in laboratory conditions in various studies and many tests, which include
- tests to identify antigens
- ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay)
- virus isolation in cell cultures
- FROM-CPR (polymerase reaction reverse transcriptase).
Note that even when testing samples have a high probability of biological contamination. And, then, to conduct such research is rational only within the limits of maximum biological isolation.
Treatment of Ebola fever in severe forms requires a number of intensive supportive therapy. Patients often suffer from dehydration, so often in need of intravenous effects, oral rehydration using solutions of electrolytes.
Primary therapy is aimed at maintaining important functions for human life, the avoidance of dehydration, intoxication. It is important to follow all safety measures such patients, isolate them, carry out the necessary preventive procedures.
Despite the fact that the disease is especially dangerous vaccine and specific treatment is not withdrawn. Daily with the results of a laboratory study trying to identify new drugs, testing of a number of vaccines, but how effective it is, only time will tell.
The recovery is very long, almost always accompanied by muscle and headaches, sometimes hair falls out, there is a characterized by pain in the throat.