Dry mouth (Xerostomia)
the symptom of dryness in the oral cavity appearing due to the decrease of salivation, or complete cessation of salivation. Is not a disease, it represents a sign that a more serious pathology, so it is recommended to pass a comprehensive examination to determine the disease that caused the xerostomia.
Saliva is a lubricant with anti-inflammatory action, which greatly facilitates chewing and swallowing and also washes away bacteria from the teeth. Therefore, the reduction or complete absence of salivary flow causes a very unpleasant sensation in humans.
Often xerostomia is a side effect of medical drugs. It occurs more often in older people because they take large amounts of drugs of different pharmacological groups. Xerostomia can develop due to the disease Mikulich, senile atrophy of salivary gland and sialadenitis.
Causes of dry mouth
- violation of nasal breathing, caused by polyps or deviated septum
- rinsing the mouth (often enough) strong disinfectants.
Xerostomia can be a symptom of diseases such as
- cystic fibrosis.
Dry mouth can be caused by
- dehydration due to diarrhoea, loss of fluids (vomiting), fever or insufficient amount of fluid in the body
- transient xerostomia may occur during and after radiotherapy, especially if it is conducted in the field of head and neck
- viral infections such mumps can also cause the symptoms of xerostomia.
Dry mouth, occurred due to the surgical removal of the salivary glands, the treatment can not be. The disease can only alleviate special preparations (moisture) to the oral cavity.
The main symptom of xerostomia is severe dry mouth. At low salivary flow increases the chances for the occurrence of suppuration, various diseases of the soft tissues of the oral region, the emergence of fungal infections. If dry mouth becomes stronger, there may be a decrease in taste sensations. There are three degrees of xerostomia, they differ in the severity of symptoms.
So, the first degree is the most mild stage of the disease, during her work in the submandibular and parotid salivary glands, so saliva enters the normal amount. Dry mouth at this stage is manifested only as a result of long conversations or fatigue. During the inspection a little frothy saliva, and the mucous itself is quite humid.
In the second stage of xerostomia, the saliva becomes partial, dry mouth constant, and it is difficult. People it becomes harder to eat dry food, it is necessary to drink water. Mucosa is weakly hydrated and has a pale pink color, which is clearly seen during the inspection.
At last, the third stage, patients experience severe dry mouth not only during the day but at night, pain while talking and eating. Erosions and ulcers,
appear because of the dryness in the mouth and lips can be dry and crusty. Sometimes there is
The main symptoms are often joined by a permanent feeling of thirst, bad breath. Patients often tolerate
and even after recovery, sore throat and hoarseness continue. If xerostomia mouth corner cracks, which become infected, and the tongue becomes red. The last two stages are accompanied by dryness in the nose and pathology of the periodontium.
Before the dentist has the task of installation of the reason for the patient having xerostomia. If the disease is caused due to intake of drugs and obezvozhivani, it’s quickly correctable. However, if dry mouth was the result of radiation therapy, the disease is almost impossible to eliminate.
Diagnosis of the disease includes a detailed survey of the patient to determine what medications, prescription and not only has he taken.
The disease can be treated with symptomatic therapy, but as soon as she stops, as the symptoms of the disease return.
Pathogenetic therapy eliminates the causes of xerostomia. Appoint solutions of potassium iodide, pilocarpine and galantamine, which improves the patient’s condition. Frequent dry mouth is reduced if you lubricate the oral vitamin a, it also promotes healing of wounds. Also, the patient’s condition can improve procaine blockade in the submandibular and parotid salivary glands and physiotherapy (electrophoresis with potassium iodide, vibratory massage).
To maintain the humidity of the mouth, need to drink water (preferably in small portions). You can also use hard candies and chewing sugar-free gum, which promotes the production of saliva.
In the treatment of xerostomia is to abandon dry and salty foods and drinks containing sugar and caffeine in high concentrations. In addition, under the ban gets the alcohol for the reason that it is very dry mucous membranes. Smoking should also be abandoned.
If you follow all the rules, then in all cases it is possible to achieve complete recovery (in addition to the complete atrophy of the salivary glands).
After elimination of the symptoms of xerostomia, should ensure that, in order to avoid relapse. For this you need to make rational medication.