Dislocation of the lower jaw
this offset joint in the temple with the release of the articular head of the mandible beyond the glenoid cavity of the temporal bone. Most often such injuries occur in women because the glenoid fossa of them smaller and ligaments weaker than men.
There are several types of acute dislocation and habitual luxation of the mandible, front and back (referring to the direction in which the displacement of the jaw), unilateral and bilateral (meaning the number of damaged jaw joints). If after an injury less than seven days, it is still a sharp dislocation, and if more, then it is chronic or habitual dislocation of the jaw. If the ends of the bones of the jaw, barely touching, then it is called full, and when you touch stronger then the incomplete dislocation. In case of simple dislocation of the jaw, soft tissues are not damaged, they tear and skin damage characterize complicated by dislocation.
Temporomandibular joint is a paired joints of the articular heads of the mandible with the temporal bones (mandibular fossa and articular tubercle). Between the temporomandibular joints associated mandibular bone, she unpaired and so they operate synchronously. A single movement in any one of the two joints is impossible, but movement of multilateral and multifunctional. Complete freedom of movement of the lower jaw ensures the congruence of the joints (which means a discrepancy), which, in turn, compensate for intra-articular disc (fibrocartilage) that is attached to the capsule of the joint on the temporal bone. Together they share the intra-articular space, dividing it into upper and lower floors.
The front part of the glenoid fossa is a cartilaginous coating and the articular head of the mandible. The disk is rather fluid and under the influence of the process of chewing can change its shape. Capsule with the articular head support disk. The tendon of the long head of the lateral pterygoid muscle is woven into the anterolateral edge of the articular disk. It helps to execute many functions such as mouth opening, extension of the jaw forward and sideways. This connection allows you to simultaneously change the position of the head and disk. The articular capsule is high strength and elastic, therefore very rare cases of rupture. When the lateral muscle pulls the capsule and disc forward, it stops fat the lower part of the capsule. Within in the joint capsule produces synovial fluid, a nutrient for cartilage and acts as a lubricant. Part of the ligamentous apparatus includes vakabalea and intracapsular ligaments that warns of stretching of the capsule. While injuries can occur, the joint capsule rupture. When you sprain their length is never gonna be the same. With this damage, like dislocation, a very important strength and deformation capacity of the joint capsule and ligaments.
Anterior dislocation of the jaw may happen due to the very strong opening of the mouth. Injury can occur while yawning, while taking food, the vomiting, even
rarely in connection with intubation of the stomach or of incubation of the trachea, when to select bronchoscopy. Also damage can be a severe blow to the lower jaw. Bilateral or unilateral dislocation depends on the location of impact (in the chin or at the side of the jaw). Over time, the decrease in elasticity of the ligaments and of the joint, modification of elements of the joints, change the location of the disk, inflammation and
can cause anterior dislocation of the mandible. Rear a dislocation happens as a result of a blow to the chin while the jaw movements. Often this occurs when the removal of teeth or excessive yawning.
Dislocation of the lower jaw causes the following symptoms spasmodic pain in the lower jaw, can not completely close the mouth and perform lateral movements of the jaw in any one or in both directions, strong tension of the cheeks, defects appear diction, strong excessive saliva. Hands it is possible to probe the elastic tension of the muscles and change the location of the heads of the condylar processes. If the dislocation is unilateral, the main source will be from the damaged side, and there may be deformity of the face in the same direction. Acute anterior dislocation may be complicated by chronic. If the time to fix the problem and straighten the jaw, any complications, as a rule, should not happen.
Not so often occurs posterior dislocation of the jaw. He was accompanied by a lesion of the skull base and facial nerve. Symptoms of luxation of the jaw is very linked to the degree of the damage. You may experience very severe pain and the injured person is not able to be in a horizontal position as the tongue can slide, and thus will block the airway. The horizontal position of the human body in this case will be his deadly. At the turn of the ear canal be bleeding from the ear, completely or partially lost hearing.
Thu to diagnose the dislocation, the patient receives an x-ray of the injured area and examined by a traumatologist. For the conclusion of the diagnosis may also need a lateral tomogram in the region of the temporomandibular joint.
Reduction of dislocation of the mandible can be done in various ways, the method of Hippocrates, the method of Hippocrates-P. V. Khodorovich method of Blechman G. L.-Yu, D. gershoni. If there was a front dislocation of the jaw, treatment is following your thumbs placed on the chewing surface of the molars and press down, gently shifting the jaw back so that the head of the joints took place in the pits, and the jaw was in the correct position. Back reduce a dislocation similarly, only by pressing the jaw to push forward. If the patient complains of very severe pain, treatment of dislocation of the lower jaw is carried out under local anesthesia. If you are dealing with a bilateral dislocation, the right to simultaneously or alternately depending on the situation. It is desirable that after reduction the jaw remained as fixed and were fixed for at least another 10-15 days (it is fixed in the correct position the special bands).
The patient all this time can only take soft food that does not require effort to be chewed, and should not try to make any sudden movements. The complexity of reposition of the jaw depends on how long ago the dislocation occurred the sooner, the easier it is to provide the patient with timely medical assistance. Treatment of habitual dislocation of the jaw occurs promptly to straighten it with a simple movement of the hands is impossible. For the best healing can be physical therapy, massage and facial exercises, apply creams and ointments that are recommended for PTSD treatment. Before using any drugs you must consult with your doctor.