this is a disease that is characterized by the exit of the nucleus of the intervertebral disc beyond the intervertebral space. Between each pair of adjacent vertebrae is a disk having an elastic layer, it absorbs the shocks of the vertebrae during walking and other loads.
Forms and stages of development of a herniated disc
Intervertebral hernia depending on localization, can be of the following forms
- disc herniation of the thoracic spine
- disc herniation of the cervical spine
- disc herniation of the lumbar spine.
Disc herniation is expressed may undergo the following stages
- the stage at which the size of the hernia reaches 3 mm, and there are complaints about back pain
- the stage at which the size of the hernia may be 10 to 15 millimeters, and the patient complains of severe back pain that occur as a result of compression of nerve endings, as well as the place of occurrence of the hernia blood circulation, at this stage there is an infringement of the nerve roots, which begin to numb the upper or lower limbs
- the last stage, which is the weakening of the muscles, and intervertebral disc ceases to have its functions begins to shrink.
Causes of herniated disc are varied. Under normal conditions, the intervertebral disc has a soft layer of fabric in the center of which is the dense core. This design clings to the UHP front and rear longitudinal ligament of the spine.
So, a herniated disc may occur when the following conditions exist
- the result of age-related changes of the spine apparatus, which leads to weakness and fragility of ligaments due to disturbed nutrition of the connective tissue. Such changes can occur with age, and also systematically if there is a violation of blood circulation in the tissues
- strong physical load on the spine, in this case, as a rule, develops in the lumbar disc herniation, because the lumbar region accounts for the bulk of the human body
- as a result of severe falls, blows or injuries
- the sharp movements and turns, especially with weights.
Symptoms of a herniated disc can be very different, in any case, they cause discomfort and pain upon the slightest impact on the vertebrae.
Here are some of the symptoms of herniated discs
- after exercise there is a strong back pain, especially in the evening
- sharp pain may radiate to the buttocks, to spread over the rear hip
- due to the tension of certain muscles in the back occur pain across the back
- possible numbness of the lower and upper extremities
- feels weakness and fatigue in the muscles
- over the course of time may develop thinning of the muscles in the hands and feet
- frequent headaches, migraines and increased blood pressure.
If you are experiencing discomfort and pain in the spine, you should immediately consult the doctor as herniated disc is a very serious disease that limits the performance.
Diagnosis of a herniated disc goes through several stages
- the doctor makes a detailed survey of the patient and establishes the symptoms and their causes. Patient tells of how long ago began to appear the first back pain, there is numbness of the fingers and toes, as well as whether household or work activities with bodyname weights. Perhaps the reason was the long sitting at a Desk or systematic exercise. On the background of the survey the doctor already has the overall picture, the results of which he can begin an examination of the patient
- the second step is the direct examination, which identifies the main signs of neurological disorders related to pain when pressing on opredelnie group of muscles
- the third stage involves x-rays of the entire spine. This method is characterized by a detailed study of the structure of the spine in multiple dimensions, it helps to detect various defects and disorders of intervertebral discs. Radiography also allows you to define the protrusion of the spinal canal, and to identify how grown bone tissue of the spine, which caused pain in the back
- at the last stage the patient is prescribed a CT scan and MRI of spine, which include layer-by-layer study of the structure of the spine and determine the size of herniated discs and compression of the spinal roots.
Depending on which symptoms of a herniated disc was diagnosed in the patient, may be assigned a different treatment.
As a rule, treatment of intervertebral hernia can be of two types
- nonsurgical methods that may include massages, special exercises, constraints, loads, and the use of pain medicines
surgical methods involve conducting
that can be removed with a special device way small puncture in the skin.
Treatment of vertebral hernia may appoint only the doctor based on the individual and physiological characteristics of the patient. The consequences of this disease may include constant pain in the back, weakening of the functions of the hands and feet, poor circulation in the spine.
In order to prevent such diseases, it is necessary not to overload the body with physical exercise, more rest, and regular exercise, which includes a simple set of exercises.