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Dementia

  1. Symptoms
  2. Reasons
  3. Diagnosis
  4. Treatment


Dementia

extreme violations of intellectual (cognitive) functions in humans. Is a function of language, attention, perception, numeracy, thinking. An independent disease is not dementia, it develops, is always secondary, for example, due to acute circulatory disorders of the brain.


Symptoms

  • When a disease like dementia, the symptoms violation of normal functioning. Memory loss begins with mild forgetfulness. Over time, the dementia patients can lose the memory for real events or past events depending on what are the causes of deviation
  • thought disorder is when it is getting slow and fuzzy
  • violation of ability to learning.


Form

Depending on what region of the brain primarily affected, we distinguish these forms of dementia

  • cortical dementia, which largely affects the cerebral cortex. It represents a violation of the higher nervous activity, in which the patient is deteriorating memory, he ceases to recognise previously familiar things, faces. Can also cause problems with the usual acts, such as brushing your teeth or tying shoelaces on shoes. With cortical dementia of possible speech disorders, etc.
  • subcortical dementia. In this form primarily affects subcortical structures and their connections with the cortex. Typical manifestations of this type is a slow thinking, lethargy, and slurred speech.


Reasons

  • Cardiovascular causes that are directly related to problems of the heart, blood vessels or poor blood flow to the brain. The result is vascular dementia
  • chronic ischemia of the brain. It is a condition that develops due to the slow deterioration of brain blood circulation and reshaping of the tissues in which there is no sufficient oxygen and nutrients. Develops with prolonged arterial hypertension, which causes high blood pressure, and also due to the narrowing of blood vessels that nourish the brain
  • acute violation of blood circulation in the brain, after which there are foci of tissue, unable to perform its function. This condition is called multi-infarct dementia
  • Alzheimer’s disease. In this disease the brain is a metabolic amyloid protein. Most often affects people 60 years and older, although younger are at risk for the disease
  • Parkinson’s disease. Is characterized by muscle stiffness, tremor and dementia
  • pick’s disease. Its cause is not yet reliably known. Can be manifested by dementia and defined in behavior disorders
  • disease dementia with Lewy bodies. The causes of this disease is also still unknown. Among the typical manifestations of dementia, behavioral disturbances, tremors, muscle stiffness, hallucinations
  • dysmetabolic diseases associated with metabolic disorders and intoxication
  • alcoholism
  • inadequate intake of vitamin B12
  • the lack of necessary thyroid hormones
  • senile dementia, which is the inevitable consequence of the aging brain and age-related manifestation. Often it is called senile dementia or senility.

Diagnosis

  • Analysis of the patient’s complaints and anamnesis of disease
  • neurologic examination aimed at finding the neurological pathology that can be associated with dementia
  • examination by a psychologist or psychiatrist who conducts the assessment of mental abilities through special scales and questionnaires
  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) of the brain, which provides the opportunity to examine its structure to determine the cause of dementia.


Treatment

Drug therapy

  • taking medications that improve the nutrition of the brain (neurotrophic)
  • taking medications that slow the death of brain cells (neuroprotective agents).

Treatment involves careful monitoring of blood pressure, if necessary administration of drugs that normalize. It is important patient teaching adaptation in society through psychological work. If dementia is at a serious stage, the patient should be provided with regular care and nurse.


Complications

Social exclusion, which manifests itself in the inability of the person to contact with people around him due to certain problems.


Prevention

  • Careful control of blood pressure and, if necessary, assign the patient to reduce his drugs
  • walking on air, moderate exercise
  • the development of intelligence the study of foreign languages, computer and so on
  • healthy food, restricting fats, eating more fruit, vegetables, salads
  • a healthy lifestyle, quitting Smoking and alcohol.