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Colon cancer

  1. Reasons
  2. Symptoms
  3. Diagnosis
  4. Treatment

The detection rate of such diseases as

colon cancer

this is 56 percent of total morbidity. Most often it manifests itself in men in the age of 5060 years.

, ulcerative

and diffuse

doing the risk of cancer is higher and they are considered as precancerous disease. For example, melangiste in the case of diffuse polyposis occurs in almost 100% of cases.

Reasons

An increased incidence of colorectal carcinoma in the developed type is associated with the presence in the diet of local residents of large amounts of meat and animal fats. Noticed a sharp decrease in incidence among vegetarians. Quite high frequency is observed among workers in sawmills, izvestnyh industries.

The highest frequency of malignant tumours is observed in the bends of the colon in place of stagnation of fecal matter that provides an opportunity to consider chronic constipation as one of the risk factors. In addition, it may play a role as chronic colitis and polyposis of the colon.

The most common location of the cancer is the area of the cecum, hepatic flexure, angle, spleen and sigmoid colon. Almost 40% of the cases affected the cecum, and in 25% the sigmoid. Cancer that occurs in the background of polyps, often accompanied by multiple foci of tumor development.

In the case of colon cancer vary exophytic (that grow inside the colon) limited and infiltrada endophytic and mixed.

Depending on histological structure, cancers that come from glandular epithelium of the mucosa of the colon, defined as adenocarcinoma, colloid and solid cancers. Rarely, the tumor may have a structure signet ring cell, squamous cell or undifferentiated cancers.

Symptoms

If there is a problem like colon cancer, the symptoms can vary depending on the location of the tumor. In colon cancer in the early stages the clinical picture is not expressed. However, with a detailed survey to identify the deterioration of health, loss of appetite, fatigue. Weight reduction in this case is very rare and on the contrary, patients may gain weight.

Later manifested many indications of bowel disorders. It’s rumbling and transfusion, constipation and diarrhea, abdominal pain, which have no connection with food intake. If you develop a narrowing of the intestine a cancerous tumor, unilateral appears uneven bloating. If we are talking about cancer of the right, that provokes anemia, as happen regular chronic blood loss.

Over time the symptoms become stronger. In especially serious situations can occur intestinal obstruction, bleeding, complications of inflammatory character.

Diagnosis

When diagnosis of colon cancer through examination of the patient, the external signs are not observed, and only with considerable dimensions of the tumor or in patients with asthenic body type, she may be a probe through the abdominal wall.

A significant role for the diagnosis is radiological examination. It helps to determine the presence of colon cancer even in the absence of obvious symptoms. In many cases, is studied in detail the relief of the intestinal mucosa.

If we are talking about cancer of the distal, then the number of required techniques for the study included colonoscopy and rectoromanoscopy that give the opportunity to examine the mucosa of the colon. When the tumor is already detected, then biopsy.

Patients are study after were analysed the clinical symptoms, results of blood tests, and stool. With the aim of getting metastases to the liver, ultrasound imaging. Laparoscopy may be indicated to avoid the spread of the malignant process.

Treatment

Radical treatment of cancer of the colon can be surgically. Operations can vary, depending on where the tumor is. Therefore is necessary to analyze the locations and development of treatment based on this.

Preparation of the patient for surgery depends on the degree of bowel cleansing. During the 34 days prior to surgery the patient should be transferred on a light diet that does not include bread, potatoes, vegetables. With prophylactic purposes for 23 days is having a course of antibiotics and sulphamide.

After the operation was carried out, in addition to General measures to fight against intoxication and dehydration, the patient should take liquid paraffin in a dose of 30 grams, 2 times a day. This remedy is a mild laxative that does not allow feces to form the dense texture, as the latter can injure joints anastomosis line. On the second day the patient may start drinking, and after taking liquid food. Over time, the diet expands, and after the chair was normalized, the patient can get to the standard diet.

With advanced forms of colon cancer that are not amenable to operation, you must perform palliative surgery. They lie in the imposition of bypass anastomosis or fecal fistula, which help to prevent the development of acute intestinal obstruction with the obstruction of the tumor. In addition to such operations are also carried out courses of chemotherapy.

Recurrence of colon tumors can be observed rarely, only in cases where the operation was performed not by a lot. If there are no distant metastases, the required re-operation. A disease such as cancer of the descending colon or cancer of the ascending colon, the lymphatic metasteziruta ways. When it affects the lymph nodes of the mesentery. Hematogenous metastases are most often seen in the liver. If the tumor grows seasonal cover of the intestine, may occur dissemination process of the peritoneum, which will be accompanied by ascites.

Forecast

If the patient has colon cancer, the prognosis depends on the stage of the process, however, when there are no metastases in the lymph nodes, it is favorable. Almost half of all patients can achieve durable cure.

Prevention

Patients who are at risk, are subject to dispensary observation. Prevention of colon cancer primarily confined to the radial treatment of polyposis of the bowel and proper treatment of colitis to prevent its transition into the chronic form. Important method of prevention is to normalize the diet, limited consumption of meat products.