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Carcinoma


Carcinoma

or simply

cancer

a malignant tumors on any organs or the skin, consisting of epithelial tissue. The incidence of cancer is constantly growing. Every year in the world there are nearly six million cases of disease by a carcinoma. Typically, tumors develop in people older than 50 years. Carcinoma of the uterus, breast, lung, stomach, intestine more frequently (or exclusively) occur in women in men, prostate cancer, liver, lung, esophagus, intestines.

Classification

Depending on the development of structural cellular elements, there are several types of cancer

  • squamous cell carcinoma grows in the layers of squamous epithelium. It is possible to identify in the diagnosis of cancer of the rectum, esophagus or skin
  • adenocarcinoma develops on the basis of the glandular epithelium. It could be cancer of the prostate, carcinoma of the breast, bronchus.

Depending on the number of cells in the tumor, whether cancer or connective, there are

  • conventional carcinoma in equal amounts are present in both fabrics
  • medullary carcinoma is dominated by cancer cells
  • fibrous carcinoma is a larger amount of connective tissue.

Types of carcinomas according to the tumor bodies

  • cancer of the respiratory system
  • hepatocellular carcinoma
  • cancer of the female genital organs, bladder, prostate
  • infiltrating carcinoma is one of the famous diseases of the breast
  • nasopharyngeal carcinoma is located in the upper area of the nasopharynx.

In addition to these organs, cancer can form on the lips, in the pancreas, ovaries and vagina.

Cancer of the thyroid gland are not as common. Very often carcinoma of the thyroid is a painless node that is rapidly growing, gaining density. Gradually felt the pressure in the thyroid gland. A tumor of this gland can grow to large sizes, cause shortness of breath, loss of voice and osiplosti.


  1. Papillary carcinoma

    this is a common type of carcinoma. This cancer manifests itself in the form of a painless node in the thyroid gland or cervical lymph nodes. Usually affects women after 30 years. Non-aggressive papillary carcinoma, death in her very rare case.

  2. Follicular carcinoma

    it is an asymptomatic node in the thyroid, occasionally metastasizes to lungs and bones. The disease is common in women who are over 40 years old.

  3. Medullary carcinoma

    this type of cancer develops in the formation of a tumor of the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland that produce thyrocalcitonin. Rare and harasses both sexes equally older than 30 years.

  4. Differentiated carcinoma

    this is a serious disease that destroys the lungs, bones and Central nervous system. It is hard to treat, especially after the spreading of metastases in the bone tissue.

  5. Anaplastic carcinoma

    the most aggressive form of cancer, difficult to treat. Anaplastic carcinoma affects people aged 65 to 70 years. The tumor is growing fast and is manifested in shortness of breath, hoarseness, and accompanied by severe pain.

The stage of carcinoma

  • The tumor grows in size up to 2 cm, regional lymph nodes affected, no metastasis.
  • A tumor with a diameter of 2 to 5 cm, the lymph nodes can detect single metastases.
  • The tumor grows in diameter more than 5 cm, growing into the surrounding tissue. There are metastases in regional lymph nodes.

Reasons

Initiation of tumor growth is due to the influence of carcinogenic chemicals, physical factors (radiation), biological (viruses), genetic (predisposition to cancer), hormonal (changes in the endocrine system).

Symptoms

The symptoms of carcinoma are separated on the basis of the location of the tumor. Early stage cancer has no specific symptoms. When it comes to the development of tumors, it has swelling in the area, bleeding, pain, disorders of the affected organ, the deterioration of appetite, weight reduction, weakness.

Diagnosis

The sooner the identification of the tumor, the better the prognosis after treatment of carcinoma. It is important to know that carcinoma is diagnosed at an early stage will increase the chances for a quick recovery from this devastating disease. Why it is so important to have regular preventive medical examinations. The appearance of the smallest of symptoms should immediately consult a doctor.

Today, medicine has many methods for diagnosing cancer

  • palpation
  • endoscopy
  • blood tests
  • MRI
  • CT
  • x-ray
  • histological examination after puncture of the tumor.

Treatment

Treatment of cancer involves the following methods

  • surgery to remove the tumor and affected tissues. Sometimes removing the whole organ and regional lymph nodes
  • chemotherapy drugs that kill cancer cells and slow the growth of tumors
  • radiation therapy, but only before surgery or treatment of an unspecified tumors
  • neutron therapy irradiation of the tumor with neutrons
  • gene therapy effect on proliferation of cells
  • chemoembolization exposure to toxic substances locally to cancer cells
  • immunotherapy stimulating the body’s defenses through vaccination.

More effective is a combination of three methods of treatment surgery, radiation and chemotherapy.