Cancer of the larynx
(throat) is a malignant neoplasm. It develops from epitelial tissue lining the surface of the larynx. Uncontrolled growth of tumor cells, resulting in disturbed function of the larynx and is a common intoxication of an organism waste products of the cancer cells. Suffer from this disease, mostly men 4060 years, their share in the number of patients reaches 95 %
Classification of pathology is developed on the basis of place of formation of the tumor. The larynx consists of three probation departments newswatcher over the vocal cords, voice box or ligaments, of the Department of subglottic (below vocal cords).Cancer symptoms hortanoticias depending on where the tumor.
Cancer newswatcher Department is characterized by rapid growth, rapid formation of secondary foci of tumor metastasis in other organs. This is the most common form of disease. Less rapidly developing cancer of the vocal cords. The prognosis is more favorable, as the patient usually promptly seeks medical attention due to hoarseness.
The most rare form of malignant tumors of the larynx cancer podskladochnogo Department. He also has a poor prognosis because of the development of the pathology is somewhat deeper in a layer between the mucosa and the muscle layer. Consequently, identify the disease, mostly in the later stages. The variety of tumors of the throat is the rarest. Also distinguish the tumor depending on the nature of the growth. According to this criterion, it is exophytic (height clearance) and endophytic (growth deep tissue).
One of the main risk factors are bad habits Smoking and drinking alcoholic beverages. Statistics say that the majority of patients with this diagnosis smokers. Cause the disease can adverse environmental conditions of a strong dust, high temperature, high content of soot in the atmosphere, phenolic resins, benzene, etc. throat Cancer is an illness. She often affects people professions experiencing high loads on the vocal cords of singers, speakers, teachers etc.
There is a group of diseases that are considered pre-cancerous conditions and with high probability, reborn in Oncology. These include chronic inflammation of the larynx (laryngitis), hyperplasia of the larynx (excessive growth of the cells of the body), leukoplakia and keratosis, contact ulcers, as well as papillomas, cysts, and contact granulomas are benign tumors. Also, the risk factors include diseases of the endocrine system, as the larynx hormone-dependent organ.
In cancer newswatcher Department symptoms featureless or absent, so a person a long time not talking to the doctor. The patient may feel dry and sore, complaining about the lack of sensitivity in the area of the throat. Periodically there is hoarseness, cough. These symptoms are often confused with the common cold. Of the distinct intonow such cancer throat foreign body sensation in the throat, pain on swallowing radiating to the ear from the side of the tumor. Over time, it becomes permanent. Because of the pain the patient eats less, loses weight, which can lead to exhaustion.
Signs of cancer of the throat in the region of the vocal apparatus hoarseness, even loss of voice and whisper. With the growth of tumors appears difficulty breathing, shortness of breath the feeling that not enough air, breathing becomes loud, hissing or whistling this phenomenon is called stridor. Possible hemoptysis, the smell of rot in his mouth.
In cancer of the subglottic division of the larynx is narrowed, leading to shortness of breath and respiratory failure, there is a dry cough then hoarseness. There is pain that is associated with the integration of tumor in the cartilage. In the later stages, as in the previous case, an unpleasant, rotten breath and hemoptysis.
Diagnosis of larynx cancer includes
- inspection by the laryngoscope, fibrolaryngoscopy
- kompletna tomography
- x-ray methods.
Therapies is selected depending on the stage and severity of the disease, as well as the sensitivity of tumors to specific treatment. Surgical treatment of laryngeal cancer is partial (resection) or total (laryngectomy) removal of the larynx. Are subject to removal and secondary tumor foci, or metastases if there are any. Surgical intervention is performed when a small size of tumors when the tumor is at I and II stages of the disease.
Treatment of throat cancer is carried out by the combined scheme before and after the operation the patient is undergoing radiation therapy. This allows to significantly reduce the size of the tumor and metastases. Sometimes you need to spend a few radiation sessions. Radiation therapy is not used in the diagnosis perichondrium cartilage of the larynx when the tumor has moved to the blood vessels and the esophagus, formed an extensive distant or regional metastases. This method is also used if the patient is in serious condition.
Radiotherapy is IIIIV stages of throat cancer development of the disease before surgery. Exposure subject the entire neck. The surgery is performed through 34 weeks. Chemotherapy in this disease are ineffective and cannot be used as an independent method of therapy. In conjunction with other methods is assigned when nadslojnom cancer. After the treatment the patient is under the supervision of specialists. The first six months, he must visit the doctor every month, the second six months once in two months, in subsequent years a few less. If you start the combined treatment , stages of the disease, the five-year survival rate is 90 %. For stage, the prognosis worsens to 67 %. After treatment it is important to undergo postoperative rehabilitation, especially if there has been a radical therapy. Such patients need to be taught speech.