Cancer of the bronchi
it is a malignant tumor that develops from the surface epithelium and bronchial glands. It is called the Central lung cancer. This is the only type of cancer, the causes of which are thoroughly examined by doctors.
Despite good knowledge, reduce morbidity does not occur. Moreover, the number of cases of Central lung cancer is growing every year. In half of the cases it is diagnosed in people over the age of 50, they suffer every fourth in the age of 4045 years.
Depending on histological structure distinguish adenocarcinoma, small cell, large-cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the bronchi. The latter was found most frequently, accounting for 60% of cases. Other less frequently diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of her ill every tenth who’s been diagnosed with this cancer.
According to the clinical and anatomical factors of disease are divided into cancer of the Central bronchial and peripheral bronchial cancer.
The cause of this cancer is degeneration of the tissue of the bronchi, which occurs under the influence of negative factors. As a rule, 80% of patients with this pathology smokers. Also, the disease causes a factor of professional work in the mines, in cement plants, production lines, glass and fiberglass, as well as activities related to volatile substances, chemicals, asbestos.
If you develop cancer of the bronchi, symptoms the severity and duration of their symptoms depends on how large the bronchus affected by the tumor if the cancer of the main bronchus, the symptoms will be more intense.
The first sign of the disease is cough. It does not depend on environmental conditions, the emotional state of the patient, the position of his body. Later the sputum becomes pink or it seen streaks of blood. Around the same time there is a fever. The temperature during the day rises to 12 degrees, then lowered to 37.
The person loses weight. After some time the symptoms of superior Vena cava caused by violation of the outflow of blood from the upper body and head. In this state the patient can only sleep in a sitting position. Breathing becomes labored and hissing. There is swelling of the face and neck.
To establish immediately an accurate diagnosis is often difficult. The disease has symptoms similar to pneumonia. When the cough becomes more frequent, the tumor detected through an x-ray or computed tomography. If the diagnosis is still in doubt, conduct a bronchoscopy, that is carried out direct inspection of the bronchial tree with help of an endoscope. Shown in this sample tissue neoplasms on histology. If in a smear are cancer cells, the diagnosis is considered confirmed.
In most cases, for the treatment of cancer of the bronchi, surgical therapy. Also apply surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy. The sequence and combination of methods depends on the type of tumor and its prevalence.
When surgery is the early stages of running circular resection of the bronchus. During the later stages of performed partial resection of the lung or removal of the entire organ. If diagnosed with inoperable cancer, the patient is assigned to symptomatic treatment cough medicines and pain relievers and oxygen therapy.
The prognosis of survival depends on what stage the cancer is found in the Central bronchus and other departments, and treatment is started. Radical surgery has shown good results in 80% of patients. If Central lung cancer has metastasized to lymph nodes, the long-term survival rate is only 30%. If surgical treatment is not carried out, the 5-year survival does not exceed 5%.