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Atherosclerosis

  1. Reasons
  2. Symptoms
  3. Diagnosis
  4. Treatment


Atherosclerosis

it is a chronic disease of the arteries characterized by the thickening of their walls due to deposits of lipids, in particular cholesterol and its compounds (plaques appear, turning into a mushy state). Because of this, the blood vessels lose their elasticity, they narrowed the lumen, and the blood can no longer circulate normally (oxygen), leading to serious heart problems.

From atherosclerosis affects not only one heart, it affects almost all arteries. Hence, there is a division of atherosclerosis at the varieties of the coronary arteries, aorta, vessels of the brain (cerebral atherosclerosis) of arteries of the lower extremities (arteriosclerosis obliterans) and so on.

Statistics show that atherosclerosis is hurting more men than women. Anyway, the male half starts to feel the symptoms of this disease early on (after 45 ka years, whereas women after 55 years). This is due to the fact that the female body is protected by estrogen, which is terminated at the time of menopause.

Reasons

It should be noted that atherosclerosis begins suddenly hidden in the body the disease Matures over the years, which was favored by the presence of harmful habits (Smoking, alcohol, unhealthy lifestyle). From atherosclerosis may suffer people who have diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, physical inactivity, gout, cholelithiasis and so on.

As well as atherosclerosis susceptible people leading busy pace of life, often faced with stressful situations, constantly in a state of emotional outbursts. But most of all contributes to the appearance of atherosclerosis genetic predisposition in the family if someone has it zabolevania, it is likely to manifest in one form or another.

Symptoms

The main symptoms of atherosclerosis are any

  • common heart problems
  • cold and zabrodie limbs (they can have a bluish-white color)
  • violation of circulation of blood
  • poor concentration
  • a gradual decline in memory
  • increasing irritability
  • constant fatigue.

If to speak more details on each of the types of atherosclerosis, the following can be noted for example, cerebral atherosclerosis begins to manifest itself in the form of headaches, which can have different character (aching, dull, constant), it provokes frequent fatigue and mood changes, is the culprit of disrupted sleep (nocturnal insomnia and daytime sleepiness). If you do not pay for these first bells of the disease, it will be added here gradually slow thinking, excessive restlessness, tinnitus, dizziness, unsteady gait, poor fine motor skills.

In turn, atherosclerosis is manifested by pain in the muscles of the legs, causing intermittent claudication and under the sense of snare, compression. Most often, pain is felt in the calf muscles but can occur in medernach and gluteus. That is, disrupted the normal functioning of the legs and there are a number of disorders (pallor of the skin on her feet and her thinning, hair loss, excessive brittle nails and deformation, the occurrence of ulcers and gangrene).

Atherosclerosis of the intestinal arteries manifests itself as dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract, abdominal pain (upper part), developing necrosis of intestinal invagination, etc.

Complications

2 known complications of acute and chronic type.

Complications of acute type are caused by clots, vascular spasm. There is a lack of blood vessels that leads to heart attacks organs (gangrene of extremities, myocardial infarction, etc.). Can occur and rupture of the vascular aneurysms until the patient’s death.

Chronic complications lead to stenosing atherosclerosis (narrowing of the vascular lumen due to blockage of plaque). Vascular insufficiency (chronic), resulting in hypoxia, atrophic and degenerative changes. Also in the organs revealed small focal sclerosis.

Diagnosis

Before diagnosing vascular atherosclerosis and assign treatment specialist always conducts a full examination, which includes clarification of the complaints, the possibility of hereditary diseases and other things.

Then comes the examination of the patient is measured in the AD and identify such factors

  • the rhythm of the heart
  • violation of lipid metabolism
  • murmurs over cardiac area.

After all these manipulations, the physician prescribes to undergo ECG, ultrasound of heart and abdomen, Doppler ultrasound of vessels of upper and lower extremities, measurement of blood cholesterol level.

Treatment

Atherosclerosis, which treatment method are medication, denotes the use of 4 groups of drugs responsible for the lowering of lipid levels. The appointment can be done only by a cardiologist, and the treatment itself involves the administration of complex medicines aimed at the normalization of the cardiovascular system of the patient.

Treatment of atherosclerosis surgically assigned when already having complications. This allows to achieve patency of blood vessels, and when up and prosthetics mainline tracks.

For example, cerebral atherosclerosis treatment may be carried out in three stages, depending on the disease. At a very early stage, when arterial narrowing is small, the doctor advises the patient to abstain from harmful habits and to lead a good lifestyle, prescribes remedies, lowering cholesterol. When disease was detected at the middle stage of the flow, then apply the drugs that prevent blood clots and improves circulation. If the disease cerebral atherosclerosis the last stage (plaque block the artery at 70%) and in vessels formed thrombus is assigned to surgical intervention.