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Aspergillosis


Aspergillosis

the disease, which is caused by different types of moulds of the genus Aspergillus. Often accompanied by the defeat of the respiratory system in individuals with a weakened immune system severe.

Aspergillosis is one of the most common fungal infections of the lungs. The fungus Aspergillus can be found in any environment, like in soil and air and in distilled water.

The location of this fungus are air vents, showers, air conditioners, books, furniture, agricultural land, the soil of house plants and other places where perhaps the accumulation of dust and conditions suitable for reproduction of the fungus. Aspergillus can be detected in the dust of hospitals, which is a cause of nosocomial infection.

Patients

have a high level of risk of infection with aspergillosis, regardless of region of residence. The disease itself is not contagious and not transmitted from person to person. Of the professional activities in the area of risk are workers in garment factories, agriculture and spinning mills.

Primarily fungus aspergilloma amazes respiratory ways and lungs and paranasal sinuses.

Reasons

Along with the air pathogen gets on the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract. Can enter the body through the damaged skin. Of great importance in aspergillosis infection has a weakened immune system of the person. The pulmonary form of aspergillosis can occur due to bronchiectasis,

,

or

and other diseases. In individuals with weakened immune systems, it first affects the lungs, and then damage the pleura and the lymph nodes directly. Using the bloodstream, Aspergillus fall into other organs, creating the abscessed granuloma. Of pulmonary aspergillosis transformed into septic. The end result is often death of the patient. The chances of recovery is only those patients whose immune system is functioning at least partially. People exposed to voluminous inhalation of Aspergillus spores, are experiencing acute diffuse

that ends in self-recovery.

Symptoms

The incubation period for aspergillosis is not installed. The fungus spores infect various organs or tissues. Aspergillosis, the treatment of which is complex, is found such types

  • bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
  • aspergillosis of the skin
  • allergic aspergillosis
  • invasive aspergillosis
  • septic aspergillosis
  • aspergillosis of ENT organs
  • aspergillosis of bones.

Bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is manifested first as Aspergillus

or tracheobronchitis. Initially Aspergillus are located in the superficial layers of the bronchial mucosa. Further there is a deepening with the formation of ulcerations. The disease is chronic in nature. Aspergillosis has symptoms such as symptom of the General weakness of the body, cough with gray sputum, and sometimes streaked with blood. Next, you may develop Aspergillus pneumonia that affects the lungs. In the acute form there is a strong increase in body temperature, possible fever, a cough with purulent sputum or blood. Also manifested by night sweats, severe shortness of breath, chest pain and occurs sudden weight loss. When listening to established finely wheezing. On the radiographic images revealed infiltrates of round or oval shape. Chronic forms, as a rule, are secondary and overlap with other lung damage. Sometimes in the chronic form it is noted mildew smell from a mouth, in the sputum visible green clumps, which consist of the fungus.

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a hypersensitive reaction to the fungus Aspergillus, which is common in patients

or

.

Septic forms often develop in people with AIDS, due to the damaged immune system. This form is characterized by wide geographical distribution of Aspergillus, which produce metastases in the infected organs. Often there are lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, multiple lesions of the skin, abscess of the brain, and so on.

Aspergillosis of ENT-organs is determined by the outer and middle

the result of the operation on the inner ear, aspergillosis of the larynx. Perhaps the emergence of Aspergillus lesions of the skin or nails. Professional aspergillosis manifests itself in people who often come into contact with spores of different species of Aspergillus.

Diagnosis

Aspergillosis, diagnosis of which is a comprehensive and complex process that is determined by a number of factors. In recognition of aspergillosis is taken to the attention of the profession, the status of the human immune system. When the affected bronchi and lungs pay attention to the duration and complexity of the occurrence, and character of sputum, leukocytosis, and eosinophilia. Confirmation of the presence of the disease is the selection of the fungus from samples of sputum, material from the bronchi. Rarely produce the allocation of Aspergillus species from blood samples. For diagnostic definitions take into account the appearance of antibodies to the pathogen. You should note that in HIV-infected hypersensitivity reaction of the delayed type is negative.

Treatment

Treatment and septic pulmonary aspergillosis is difficult. Chemotherapy gives a positive result only in some cases. Pulmonary aspergillosis effectively treated with surgical intervention. For most patients, the surgery is successful and without complications. Relapse is rare. If the disease has spread to other organs, we used a combined technique of surgery and other traditional techniques, depending on the characteristics of the disease and condition of the patient. Intravenously administered iodine-containing drugs, gradually increasing the dose, using iodide of potassium or sodium. The course lasts depending on the type of aspergillosis and an average of from 4 to 8 weeks. In pulmonary forms of aspergillosis showing inhalation solutions of sodium iodide, tincture of brilliant green and sodium salts.

With the defeat of skin and mucous membranes aspergillosis topically used anti-inflammatory and protivomikrobnye drugs.