(aortic valve) disease cardiac in nature, which is characterized by incomplete closure of the valve flaps when the heartbeat, which causes reverse blood flow from the aorta into the left ventricle. The result before receiving the next portion of blood, he is not depleted, and the heart muscle has to work harder to pump the blood. This provokes an increase of blood pressure in the heart. The disease may not manifest itself, that is, symptoms appear only when it progression. They may be rapid heartbeat, chest pain, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, constant fatigue, weakness, or fainting. The disease affects most often the male half of the population.
Aortic insufficiency refers to the heart disease, in which the defeat of the aortic valve represents Crescent not allowing the valves to fully close. This causes a characteristic poor circulation.
When the heart blood ejected from the left ventricle, then the aorta is supplied to other vessels. In the absence of pathology in this region, the flaps of the aortic valve are connected completely and this eliminates the return of blood back. Blood moves through the aorta, making its circuit. But if you develop such a pathology as aortic valve – normal blood flow is impaired, the aortic valve does not close the aortic opening and the blood returns to the left ventricle. He arrives at the same time and the blood from the left atrium. Blood in the left ventricle becomes much more than it should be, he is overwhelmed, increases, it is necessary to cope with a large volume of blood, make great efforts to maintain the bloodstream. Over time, as a result of this increased load the muscle that pushes the blood becomes thicker. In addition, on the background of aortic insufficiency sufficient nutrition is not getting goes to the heart due to disturbed coronary blood flow. This further aggravates the heart condition.
Insufficiency of the aortic valve may be an isolated defect, but can occur in different variants with other heart defects.
Aortic valve insufficiency occurs on the background of infectious processes, but most of it is formed due to rheumatic endocarditis. At the same time developing a shortening of the valves.
The disease can develop on the background of changes of vascular walls that occurs with hypertension, atherosclerosis, syphilis. Reasons can also become aortic, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis.
Given the large compensatory potential of the myocardium, the disease for a long time may be asymptomatic. And even doing physical exercises, a person may not immediately feel any symptoms.
In the further progression of coronary and brain disorders lead to the appearance of the first symptoms such as dizziness, weakness, fatigue, rapid and increased heart rate. Aortic insufficiency is manifested by tachycardia, feel alone, the symptoms are worse after exercise. Notes pale. Develops shortness of breath, attacks of angina, which are poorly removed by nitroglycerin.
People with insufficiency of the aortic valve has an external characteristic symptoms. It is visible pulsation of the neck vessels dance carotid and he shakes his head to the beat of the pulse.
When the measurement of blood pressure revealed increased systolic pressure, but diastolic pressure is always reduced, sometimes down to zero. HELL is changed. The pulse is quick, tall, big.
Reinforced lift revealed apical impulse. Heart expanding to the left.
When listening, there is a weakening of the first tone at the apex, and the weakening of the second tone of the aorta (in case of strong destruction of the valve leaflets, up to its complete disappearance). In the third intercostal space to the left and above the aorta appears soft blowing diastolic murmur. He clearly auscultated if the patient will make a full exhalation and hold the breath.
Changes in blood flow that occurs on the background of this condition cause a great enlargement of the left ventricle, resulting in mitral regurgitation. It will manifest itself by the appearance of systolic murmur. It is auscultated at the apex of the heart. Less appears diastolic murmur of flint. Sometimes this defect can be heard on the femoral artery two noise.
Severe complications are pulmonary edema, as a manifestation of heart failure and heart rhythm disturbance ventricular premature beats.
First of all, the presence of aortic valve regurgitation, the doctor may consider the results of the examination of the patient. Because manifestations of this disease have their own characteristics, detectable externally and when listening. As mentioned above, at a certain stage of development of the disease there is the characteristic appearance of the patient and noises appear in the heart.
Confirmed the diagnosis since the special methods of research.
Echocardiography can detect signs of disease in the form of reverse blood flow, increased work of the muscle wall of the left ventricle in systole and shake the mitral valve when blood fills the left ventricle.
Phonocardiogram good at detecting changes in tones and noise, identifies this flaw.
ECG and radiograph of the heart can long-term to detect changes. They are detected at late stages, when the developing left ventricular hypertrophy.
Treatment of aortic valve regurgitation
There are two kinds of treatment of this pathology.
Aortic insufficiency is eliminated, if the treatment is by surgery, which radically solves the problem. Thus implanted artificial valve. But the positive outcome of such operations depends on the severity of changes in the myocardium.
Aortic valve insufficiency treated conservatively, the treatment is aimed at reducing the symptoms of this disease, which can be remedied temporarily. The time of onset of heart failure has been postponed. A conservative approach aimed at maintaining and improving the condition of other organs. To prevent cerebrovascular insufficiency, and insufficiency of the coronary circulation, it is necessary to maintain an adequate heart rate. This is possible with the use of cardiac glycosides (korglikon, strofantin, etc.).
Also used vitamins, kokarboksilazu, riboksin to maintain the power of the heart muscle.
Complications occur is assigned their treatment.