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Amoebiasis

  1. Reasons
  2. Symptoms
  3. Diagnosis
  4. Treatment


Amoebiasis

this is a disease that is caused by the simplest microorganisms-parasites. The reason for its development activities-celled amoeba. It is the causative agent of amoebiasis. Most often when this problem affects the large intestine, which develops ulcers, ulcers also form in other organs. Especially this disease is prevalent in tropical countries. Can meet in southern regions of Russia. Amoebiasis affects children and adults.

Form

Depending on the severity of the symptoms stands out asymptomatic and symptomatic amebiasis. Asymptomatic characterized by the absence of the disease. Manifesto for by the high body temperature, weakness, diarrhea, abdominal pain. There are several types of intestinal, extraintestinal, skin amebiasis.

Depending on the stage stands the acute and chronic forms. The acute phase is characterized by rapid development of symptoms and severe feeling sick. Chronic amebiasis can take continuous or relapsing.

Extraintestinal amoebiasis is also divided into amoebic hepatitis, liver abscess, pulmonary amoebiasis, the amoebiasis of the brain and cutaneous amebiasis. Stands of invasive amoebiasis (observed symptoms) and non-invasive. For the latter characterized by

  • flow no symptoms
  • the absence of trophozoite-hematophagous (an active form of existence of the organism, which manifests itself in tissues and organs)
  • the absence of pathological changes, which are detected with endoscopy
  • the lack of specific antibodies.

Reasons

The disease agent is a parasite called an amoeba that can live in the resting stage or vegetative form. In the environment of the amoeba exists in a state of the cysts, which ensures its reproduction and protection from negative environmental effects.

The vegetative form emerges from the cyst. The source of infection is a sick man. Method of transmission fecal-oral. Transmitted through food, household, waterways. Accommodation and reproduction of the amoeba in the human body becomes the cause of the appearance of microabscesses. When the amoeba penetrate the vessels of the mesentery, they get placed in other departments where they cause abscesses.

Symptoms

The first manifestations occur a week after infection or several months after the incubation period. Regarding symptoms, the disease amoebiasis divided into intestinal and extraintestinal species.

If the human intestinal amoebiasis, there are several key symptoms. Among them are such

  • upset stomach, diarrhea
  • abdominal pain, which are cramping in nature and worse after bowel movement
  • a slight increase in body temperature that is observed not in all cases.

In the case of destruction of the Appendix symptoms acute

such as severe pain in the upper quadrant, high body temperature, muscle tension and so on. They are accompanied

  • dehydration (dehydration) of the body
  • fatigue, weakness, lethargy, apathy
  • acute symptoms last about 46 weeks and then comes back to normal and starts the period of remission.

Extraintestinal amoebiasis is expressed by the abscess (ulcer) liver. Begins acutely observed and so

  • the increase in body temperature
  • chills and high separation sweat
  • pain in right side under ribs, which become especially strong when the change of position of the body, feeling of the liver
  • .

If there is an abscess in the liver, the symptoms may not manifest or be expressed in moderation.

Amoebic pneumonia

in which noticed these symptoms

  • very high body temperature
  • chills
  • chest pain
  • shortness of breath and cough
  • expectoration of blood.

The defeat of the pericardium (heart outer shell).

(inflammation of the brain) – symptoms determined by the location of the abscess in the brain.

Cutaneous amoebiasis – there are erosions and ulcers on the skin, for example, on the abdomen, buttocks and so on. They appear, as a rule, patients with severe weakness of the body.

If proper treatment is not available, amebiasis can last for years, manifested by periods of exacerbation, remission, may be a continuous current.

Seen such signs

  • anemia (anemia)
  • asthenia (severe weakness)
  • strong slimming
  • a lack of vitamins.

The incubation period lasts from one week to three months.

Diagnosis

  • examines the history of the disease and patient complaints. Considered when the symptoms started, how they developed, was one that could cause diseases and so on
  • inspection is performed by a physician. When it is determined by tenderness on palpation of the abdomen, symptoms of extraintestinal manifestations of amebiasis
  • a blood test
  • biochemical analysis of blood. It helps to determine the changes in liver enzymes, total protein and so on
  • feces analysis – this method helps to detect the presence of live amoebae. Such a study should be conducted immediately after defecation
  • the colonoscopy is the endoscopic method, which helps to determine the presence of amoebae in the intestine
  • methods of immunologic diagnostics. They can be used to detect protein amoeba
  • methods of molecular diagnostics. Allow to determine the presence of amoeba in the stool
  • instrumental methods of investigation in the presence of extraintestinal forms
  • ultrasound
  • x-ray examination of the chest
  • computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, which makes it possible to identify certain changes
  • you may need to consult a gastroenterologist.

Treatment

In such diseases as amebiasis, treatment can be non-surgical (conservative) and surgical.

Non-surgical treatment

Use certain specific drugs

  • Antiprotozoal drugs, destroying amoebas
  • antibacterial agents (antibiotics that treat infection) in case of intolerance to Antiprotozoal drugs or in the presence of certain complications.

Symptomatic treatment

  • multivitamin preparations
  • the restoration of the balance of water and salt in the body
  • receiving antispasmodics to cope with pain
  • gepatoprotektory tools that increase the protective function of the liver.

Treatment surgical techniques be used if conservative means are ineffective or if there is a threat of rupture of the abscess.

Complications

If we are talking about the defeat of the intestine (intestinal amebiasis), the consequences can be so

  • rupture of the intestinal wall
  • bleeding in the intestine
  • specific appendicitis (inflammation of Appendix).
  • the rectum can fall
  • detachment of the intestinal mucosa and necrosis of tissues
  • narrowing of the intestine
  • secondary infectious diseases.

In the case of extraintestinal forms (for example, liver, brain, lungs)

  • abscess or liver abscess can be complicated by breaking into the abdominal cavity with the development

    or in the pericardium, together with the development of pericarditis. When this kind of complications the probability of death can be more than 25% if the patient on time is not getting the proper treatment

  • the lung abscess, empyema, hepatic-pulmonary fistula.

Prevention

  • not to use tap water
  • to eat foods that were heat-treated
  • after the transferred disease, you need to be seen by a doctor at least for one year
  • prevention of amebiasis in the individual order in that case, if you are planning to visit endemic areas (tropical countries)
  • the definition and treatment of zastanawiala people, which were found amoebic cysts.