Degenerative reactions occurring in the human brain, lead to the violation of a number of chain reactions responsible for memory, reasoning, mental ability, orientation in the external environment, the speech factor.
Degeneration of the gray matter of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain refer to as Alzheimer’s disease. This pathology was named after the psychiatrist who studied all the nuances associated with dementia. The study was conducted in elderly patients older than 60 years. As a rule, this disease does not apply to people younger, but there are exceptions among the patients meet early cases of dementia.
It should be noted that Alzheimer’s disease are very individual, each patient’s pathology develops specifically and symptomatically manifested in different ways. Many people mistakenly believe that the number one cause is old age and stressful situations, both positive and negative origin. Poor memory, inability to recall newly learned information or a new event can not be directly attributed to dementia or the early stages of it. All signs must have some sort of Statute of limitations plus received treatment because of a lack of effect, but not exacerbating the disease condition. It is checked in a year or two years if the symptoms of memory loss takes a large-scale development, so it’s really Alzheimer’s.
Causes and symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease
- Heterogeneity. Protein amyloid origin or b-amiodarone accumulates in intracerebral areas of the brain. Pathological protein is the result of mutations (point mutations) at the level of genes, all of this slows down or completely blocks the work of the gray matter of the brain that leads to memory impairment. Unfortunately, this mechanism is not fully understood.
- The transformation of pH in the extracellular space. Oxidative processes in the mitochondria of cells decreases, is an increase in the acidity of the intercellular spaces, and there is a lot of free radicals. The lysosomal hydrolase loses its activity, and pathological amyloid accumulate in the cells in large quantities, because there is no resorption.
- Senile plaque. The pathological deposition of amyloid is very slow, but effective. Favourite localization is the cerebral vessels and brain substance. All the neurons around plaques are dying because of the damaging effects of b-amyloidbeta that act as a toxin.
- Macrophages. Toxins b-aminoadipate activate macrophages, they eat the neural army is destruction of the gray matter of the brain and rapidly developing Alzheimer’s disease.
- Genetic disposition
- memory and orientation are violated partially or completely
- incoherent speech
- inadequate movements
- complete loss of ability to recognize letters, patients are unable to write, to read and write.
- motivation and action are missing
- the lack of ability to recognize loved ones
- a confluence of childhood
- a conversation with a
- protests of a different nature famine and the refusal of bathroom procedures and etc.
At a more advanced age, the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease increase.
In psychiatry there are 4 stages of Alzheimer’s disease
- medium type
starts at the moment when the new information lends itself to difficult absorption. Mathematical problems of medium and light level may seem incomprehensible and difficult to solution. Attention to concentration, cognitive flexibility, abstract thinking and other symptoms in the early stages insignificant, but appear apathetic state.
Early stage dementia
is characterized by reduction of memory and speech. Impairment of the function of gestures the movement of such patients resemble drunk people. Such patients often talk about their past life, repeating several times the same story. Sick of living in the past and do not perceive the present. Confusion of speech factor and the pronunciation of inverted words and weird style of clothing is substantial evidence that Alzheimer’s disease, whose symptoms were listed, adopts intensive form of development, that is, moves to the next stage.
Dementia medium type
(or moderate) is progressive in nature. First, it concerns the speech vocabulary is completely exhausted, there is difficulty in choosing the right names and words, things and events are called by their names, but a completely different thing. Secondly, there is no perception of time. Thirdly, the relatives are not recognizable. Complete loss of the adequacy of hallucinations and delusions. There is a high vulnerability and tearfulness, plus the desire to leave home. There are periods of aggression and suicidal thoughts, all this is reminiscent of the pattern of stress.
Alzheimer’s disease in this stage, the patient cannot be left unattended. Complete memory loss, speech disorder, lack of understanding, apathy or aggression, bulimia, or anorexia, chained to the bed and other complications eventually lead the patient to death. This condition can last from several months to several years depending on the rate of depletion.
All diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease and collected history
- information from friends and relatives, that is, the history of the development of the disease
- hereditary factor, if someone close relatives have suffered senile dementia
- injuries and illness contusions, concussions and open traumatic brain injuries, cancer of the brain, etc.
- instrumental study of the brain CT, MRI and x-ray examination.
In the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease includes an extensive list of procedures and drugs aimed towards improving memory and comfortable life of the patient. The elimination of irritating factors causing aggression and apathy. Creating coziness and comfort with regular exercise the intellectual nature. Psychotherapy yields positive results in 30% if only Alzheimer’s treatment of another kind does not recognize, that is not amenable to drug therapy, and responds positively to psychotherapy.
Drug therapy consists of the following groups
- inhibitors cholinesterase acetylcholine
- anticonvulsants stabilize mood
- beta-blockers, etc.
From a medical point of view would be more efficient to assign complex treatment. The combination of drugs is neuroprotective and cholinergic actions will lead to the correction of cognitive destruction and stop the progression of the disease. Hormonal and anti-inflammatory drugs in the early stages, will also lead to the inhibition of the development of dementia. Pharmacologists in conjunction with the psychiatrists working on the development of more precise drugs to treat disease, senile dementia or Alzheimer’s disease.