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Acromegaly

  1. Reasons
  2. Symptoms
  3. Diagnosis
  4. Treatment


Acromegaly

the disease, which is characterized by an increase (thickening and extension) of the skull (most of the front of it), hands, feet, etc. the Disease is associated with dysfunction of the anterior pituitary.

Usually acromegaly slowly develop after the organism stops growing and lasts for many years. The cause of the disease lies in the generation of large quantities of growth hormone. Acromegaly is characterized by severe fatigue, headaches, visual disturbances, weakening of mental abilities. Often, women stop menstruating, and men comes impotence.

Such disruption of the pituitary gland, which is celebrated in early childhood causes gigantism.

Acromegaly is caused by excess production of growth hormone and characterized by disproportionate growth of soft tissues, bones and internal organs.

Reasons

In the development of acromegaly important role is played by the increased production of growth hormone due to the large number of patients with lesions of the hypothalamic-pituitary system or eosinophilic adenoma of the pituitary gland. The secondary role is played by disruption of other endocrine glands adrenal, sexual, thyroid, and pancreas.

Manifestations of the disease due to changes and complications of the internal organs. To increased periosteal bone growth and increase in weight of soft tissues, as well as nitrogen retention in the body leads to the strengthening phase of protein metabolism (anabolic phase).

In addition, due to an excess of growth hormone is increase the function of the R-cells of the pancreas, hyperplasia and depletion of the reserve capacity that leads to the development of

.

Symptoms

The main symptoms of acromegaly

  • excessive sweating, which is caused by increased metabolism and increased sweat glands
  • the disproportionate increase of the hands and feet
  • carpal tunnel syndrome, which is caused by compression of the hypertrophied fibro-cartilaginous tissue (wrist) median nerve
  • deforming osteoarthritis develops secondarily because of the deformation of the joint and growth of bone tissue. Most pronounced in the large joints
  • hypertension it is considered to be caused by sodium retention by the kidneys under the influence of somatotropin
  • diabetes mellitus (insulin dependent) or breach of tolerance to carbohydrates, caused by the action of growth hormone (kontrinsuljarnye)
  • due to the depression of the respiratory center or obstruction of the respiratory tract

  • headache.

Diagnosis

The doctor may suspect acromegaly by the characteristic appearance of the patient, and to confirm the diagnosis it is necessary to conduct such laboratory investigations

  • the sample with the glucose is the most trusted the patient is given to drink a solution with 50-100 g of glucose and 1-1. 5 hours to determine the diagnosis
  • the doctor determines the basal level of growth hormone in serum. The analysis is carried out two or three times on different days, eliminating random fluctuations of growth hormone.

Treatment

Treatment of acromegaly

  • surgery on the pituitary gland removal of pituitary adenoma
  • the use of hormonal drugs Lanreotide or Bromocriptine, which reduce the production of growth hormone (GH)
  • radiotherapy.

Complications

Because of the illness of the heart and lungs and lesions of the brain vessels, there is increased mortality in acromegalic patients. Besides, in this disease increased risk of colon cancer and polyposis.