Meningitis is a dangerous inflammatory disease that affects the sheath the brain and spinal cord. In connection with the transmissibility of the disease and the need for urgent treatment in the stationary regime of observation, first, it is important to know how to identify the disorder and what symptoms has meningitis.
At risk for the development of this disease in the body, mainly includes the pediatric population, although cases of its manifestation in older people. Indications for the development of meningitis can vary depending on multiple factors. Namely, the kind of disease, the health status of the patient, the reasons which provoked the disease of the disease, developing in parallel as complications. About the peculiarities of diagnostics of meningitis and will be discussed in this article.
Varieties of meningitis
To understand how to recognize meningitis, it is important to understand that the disease has several varieties, which may differ from each other by the presence of some additional features. First of all, the disease is classified as follows
- character development
- due to the occurrence
- the location of inflammation in the lining of the brain
- types and nature of the inflammation.
In turn, each of these types can be divided into varieties of the disease. A more detailed description is attached below.
Types of disease on character development
There are two main kinds of illness that are allocated depending on features of its development in the human body. These include primary and secondary meningitis. Their differences are that, in the case of the primary form, the disease manifests as an independent inflammation of the membranes of the brain, triggered by the standard reasons.
As for the secondary forms of the disease, in this case, meningitis is manifested as a consequence of or worsening of an infectious disease plaguing the patient. These conditions include tuberculosis, syphilis, mumps and other maladies of the same class.
Separation due to the occurrence
Depending on the cause of meningitis, allocated five main varieties. They include bacterial, viral, fungal, viral and bacterial (combined) and parasitic form of the disease.
Grading on the localization of inflammation
Depending on the location of the focus of the inflammatory process of the meninges, the meningitis there are four types. These include convexital, diffuse, local, and basal forms of the disease.
Types of diseases types and nature of the inflammation
In the case of a gradation of such diseases as meningitis-type developing inflammation, there are two varieties of serous and purulent meningitis. As for the nature of the disease, in this case, the separation occurs in acute and chronic form of development.
The causes of the disease
The causes of meningitis are divided into two types basic and advanced. The main provocateur of the disease is a microorganism is a pathogen. Additional causes are indicators of the health status of the patient.
The causative agents of disease there are several types of viruses, bacteria, fungus, parasites. It depends on which of these microorganisms triggered illness, is the gradation of the varieties of the disease.
Ingress of pathogens into the human body is airborne or food, through contact with a carrier of the infection. The appearance of the disease it results only in the case of their penetration into blood and transport to the tissues of the brain (the brain or spinal cord).
Also important is the role the state of human health at the time of infection. In apparent excellent health, may be severely weakened immunity, and that is what gives the disease the opportunity to develop.
The first signs of meningitis
In connection with the danger of the disease to health and even life of the patient, it is extremely important to know how to diagnose meningitis is to be able to determine the development of the disease and to seek medical attention. It is not enough to have a list of the varieties of the disease, you need to understand what they are signs.
For all varieties of the disease, there are General symptoms of meningitis. Moreover, they also can be divided into two categories of common infectious signs and specific signs of the disease such as meningitis.
The first category includes a list of symptoms, characteristic of infectious diseases accompanied by inflammation. Secondly, specific characteristics, as manifested meningitis.
It should be noted that you show signs of meningitis in all types of patients (women, men, children) equally. The difference may be only in the intensity of the exhibited symptoms and speed of progression of the disease.
General infectious signs
In the list which General infectious symptoms can be observed with meningitis, includes the following characteristics
- a significant increase in body temperature
- change the color of the skin (pallor, cyanosis sometimes)
- aching pain in the muscles
- General weakness of the body
- loss of appetite.
In complicated course of the disease may also noticeable lowering blood pressure. The patient is depressed and may withdraw not only from food but also from drinking.
Specific signs of disease meningitis
The main symptom of meningitis is called meningeal syndrome. Its essence is that if, placing the patient on his back, try to tilt his head to the chest, the patient’s legs bent at the knees, and the tilt will cause pain.
In addition to the meningeal syndrome, there is a list of the specific symptoms of the disease called meningitis. These symptoms include
- constant dizziness
- painful reaction to bright light, loud sound
- nausea and vomiting.
Unlike other infectious diseases, headache in meningitis is distinguished by its severity and intensity. This feature is typical for any type of disease, as occurs as a result of increased intracranial pressure under the influence of inflammation of the meninges.
Headache with meningitis is manifested in the form of pulsating, bursting pulses, the intensity of which increases gradually. It can manifest itself in a particular area, and throughout the surface of the head. Over time, the intensity of pain impulses increases during movement of the patient, exposed to light or sound stimuli. It is also characteristic that the usual painkillers, if such headaches, powerless.
Such signs of meningitis, dizziness as well as painful reaction to light and sound, usually seen within the first three days of the disease. This is due to reduced, due to the development of inflammation of the meninges, the threshold of sensitivity of brain receptors responsible for the perception of visual and auditory impulses.
At the same time manifested such symptoms as nausea and vomiting. Vomiting with meningitis has nothing to do with dietary habits. It is triggered by the overall weakness of the body, headache and irritation of all vital systems. This reaction does not bring improvement, only further weakens.
Also, very rarely, one of the first symptoms of the disease may experience rashes on the skin of the patient. Rash with meningitis, symptoms may change its character and localization. For example, during the first days of the condition, skin lesions occur on the limbs in the form of red spots.
At later stages, the rash of meningitis looks like petechial hemorrhages in the mucous membranes and the skin. In this case, localization of lesions of the skin may spread to the entire surface of the patient’s body, including the mucous tissue of the eyes, mouth, genitals.
At the first signs of the disease, whether General or specific infectious symptoms of meningitis, consult the doctor. Treatment this disease is very time-consuming and complex process, therefore, the timeliness of access to medical care, in this case, plays a huge role. Diagnosed meningitis helps to avoid infection of others and the serious consequences of this disease.