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Myelitis

  1. Symptoms
  2. Reasons
  3. Diagnosis
  4. Treatment


Myelitis

an inflammatory process that attacks the spinal cord, as occurs in allergic and infections, as well as spinal cord injuries, poisoning the body with heavy metal salts, alcohols.

Starts acute myelitis, usually with malaise and General weakness. The passage of time there is high temperature, accompanied by mild pain in the chest and back. Occur after paresthesia in the legs, passing over time to numbness with rapid loss of movements, which can lead to full paralysis.

The reason for the defeat of the thoracic area of the spinal cord may develop paraplegia of the lower extremities, which is accompanied by a reduction in the level of sensitivity of conduction type. In cases of the acute form of the disease the progression of the paralysis occurs slowly and is accompanied by a process of loss of tendon reflexes. Over time, the paralysis may go into spastic (Central). In the case of acute course of the process characteristic spastic character of the paralysis.

In cases of inflammation not in the thoracic spinal cord paralysis may take a different view. Inflammation in half of the segment is a paralysis of Broun-sekara. There may be a disorder of the pelvic organs, manifested as a delay of feces and urine (or in weakness of the sphincter).

Symptoms

With the development of the disease these signs of myelitis

  • General malaise with a high temperature of 3840 degrees
  • General weakness, skin sensitivity and sweating
  • reduced or absent pain and temperature sensitivity, the visible disturbance of sensation in the body, manifested by weakness, which subsequently assumes the character of paralysis.

Reasons

Causes of myelitis become infections that can affect the spinal cord (

) and whole body (

,

), various kinds of injuries of spine (fractures, gunshot, stab wounds).

Also, experts identify the following risk factors, as

  • intoxication by substances of chemical origin
  • the transfer of the patient demyelinating disease processes.

Form

The level at which there is inflammation, there are cervical myelitis, acute transverse myelitis, thoracic myelitis. Usually affects one or two of the adjacent segment of the brain.

The causes of myelitis, there are the following forms

  • primary (caused by lesions of the infection in the first place the spinal cord)
  • secondary (caused by damage to the infection of the whole body, accompanied by General intoxication)
  • traumatic (myelitis, subsequently developing spinal cord injuries)
  • toxic (developing in lesions of the body chemicals that cause severe poisoning)
  • neiroallergicaki (expressed lesion of spinal cord diseases with an allergic component).

Diagnosis

  • Analysis of complaints and anamnesis of the disease, which, it appears, long ago, there was impaired sensation, incontinence and weakness in the limbs, a possible cause of the onset of symptoms (injuries, illness, poisoning)
  • neurological examination includes a definition of the limits of sensitivity disorders, the evaluation of strength of extremities and muscle tone, possible incontinence of urine and feces
  • the analysis of the blood for the presence of inflammatory processes, the presence of antibodies to infections
  • lumbar puncture is performed puncture of the subarachnoid space at the lumbar level, followed by fence fluid (CSF) provide the necessary exchange in the brain and spinal cord to detect in CSF signs of inflammation, and antibodies
  • electroneuromyography. With its help, assessment of the ability of the spinal cord conduct nerve impulses, and in violation of conductivity, you can set the level at which there is an inflammatory process
  • magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal cord, allowing to study the structure of the spinal cord, to show the size and presence of inflammation.

Treatment

First and foremost, it requires hospitalization with strict bed regime.

In the treatment of myelitis are detoxification activities together with application of various preparations of adrenocorticotropic hormone, glucose with hexamine, corticosteroids in high doses. Also used antibiotics (for bacterial etymology) in large doses of anticholinesterase drugs. Physiotherapy and physical exercises as prevention of the development of nutritional disturbances of the skin from compression and contractures (stiff joints of paralyzed limbs).

Catheterization of the bladder by introducing it through the urinary tract tubes or the imposition epicystostomy (tube insertion through an incision above the pubis) it is necessary to create an adequate outflow of urine.

Complications

Complications appear in the form of malnutrition of the skin from compression (pressure sores) observed in long-term lying patients and violations of mobility in paralyzed limbs. The lack of evident recovery (neurological defect)

the incontinence of urine and feces.