Urinalysis (urinalysis) is a laboratory test that allows evaluating physical and chemical characteristics of the urine and microscopy of the sediment.
What indicators are examined in the clinical urine analysis?
The features that are examined are the color of urine, its transparency, specific gravity, acidity (pH). The urine is examined on the concentration of protein, glucose, bilirubin, urobilinogen, ketones, nitrite and hemoglobin. Epithelial cells, erythrocytes, leukocytes, cylinders, bacteria are also detected in the urinary sediment.
Why is urinalysis performed?
- for the diagnosis of kidney diseases: nephritis, nephrosclerosis, amyloidosis, kidney stones, tumors;
- to diagnose pyelonephritis, diseases of the bladder, prostate;
- to detect early signs of diseases, therefore the urine test is done in case of preventive examinations.
What are the indications for a clinical analysis of urine?
- obligatory examination, which is carried out in all patients regardless of a presumptive diagnosis;
- kidney disease and urinary tract;
- the annual preventive examination;
- the assessment of the course of the disease and the effectiveness of the ongoing treatment;
- those who had a streptococcal infection (tonsillitis, scarlet fever) is recommended to give a urine sample after 1-2 weeks after recovery.
How to prepare for the analysis?
It is important to abstain from alcohol, emotional and physical stress, fruits and vegetables that can change the color of urine; avoid taking diuretics. It is not recommended to do the urine test for 5-7 days after cystoscopy and during the menstruation period.
How to collect urine for the analysis?
It is necessary to perform hygienic procedures of external genitals before collecting the urine; then, right after waking up one should collect the whole portion of the morning urine in the prepared clean and dry container, stir and pour about 50 ml of it into the prepared container with a tight lid.
Is it possible to store urine?
Collected urine should be delivered to the laboratory within 1-2 hours, and it must be stored in a cool place.
How many days to wait for the results of a urine test
1 business day.
What are the normal urine test results?
|The amount of the collected urine for the analysis||Doesn’t matter for the diagnosis|
|Color||various shades of yellow|
|Clarity of urine||Сlear|
|Odor of urine||Slight and non-specific|
|Reaction of urine or рН||acid, рН – 4,8 – 7,5|
|Specific gravity (relative density) of urine||1010 – 1025|
|Protein in urine||< 0,140 g/l|
|Glucose in urine||None|
|Ketones in urine||None|
|Bilirubin in urine||None|
|Urobilinogen in urine||5-10 mg/l|
|Hemoglobin in urine||None|
|Red blood cells in urine
|0-3 seen in women
0-1 seen in men
|White blood cells in urine
|0–6 seen in women
0–3 seen in men
|Epithelial cells in urine
|Cylinders in urine
|Salts in urine
|Bacteria in urine||None|
|Yeast cells in urine||None|
|Parasites in urine||None|