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Periodontitis

Pathological conditions of periodontal tissues, when the mucous membrane of gums and the jaw bone is gradually decline, called periodontitis. The process is destructive, in which there is a gradual atrophy of the gingival and alveolar bone around the teeth.

Symptoms of the disease is quite scarce, and it’s progressing at a slow pace. On this basis, the patient may remain for a long time in the dark about his gum disease. Periodontosis is detected by chance when visiting a doctor regarding teeth mobility or other diseases of the teeth and oral cavity.

Periodontosis is rare, relative to other oral disease. Its feature is that in this case the inflammatory process has no place to be. More often, periodontosis occurs in those people whose parents have suffered or are suffering from this disease. Following this we can conclude that periodontosis can be passed genetically from generation to generation.

Content

  1. Classification of periodontosis
  2. Causes that contribute the periodontosis
  3. The process of disease establishment and its course
  4. The symptoms
  5. With what can be confused periodontitis?
  6. Treatment of periodontosis
  7. Prevention of periodontosis
  8. Some interesting facts

1Classification of periodontosis

Periodontosis is classified according to the degree of prevalence, nature and current stages of development.

By prevalence the periodontosis is divided into two groups:

Localized (baring necks is observed only in a limited area of the dentition);

Generalized (destructive changes capture the whole dentition or both of the the jaws).

By extension of periodontosis:

  • Chronic;
  • Aggressive.

By stages of progress or by level of atrophy of the jaws bone there are five stages:

  • The initial stage;
  • The first stage;
  • The second stage;
  • The third stage;
  • The fourth stage.
Development of periodontitis
Development of periodontitis

2Causes that contribute to periodontosis

Periodontosis – is not fully discovered disease. We can’t say with precision what can be the cause of its appearance – only make some suggestions regarding the factors that may contribute to the gradual resorption of the gums and jaw bone.

Periodontosis always occurs on a background of blood disorders in the soft tissues of the oral cavity and the violation of metabolic processes of the body. This condition occurs when there is a plurality of diseases, but mucosa and bone are exposed to destruction only in some cases.

Dentists research helped to identify a number of factors, which people with periodontosis have:

  • Reduction of immunity for a long period;
  • Endocrine disorders (failure of the process of hormone production);
  • Pathology bite;
  • Acute or chronic periodontal tissue injury (bruises, fractures, orthopedic and orthodontic wrong design);
  • Violations of trophism (metabolism in the oral mucosa);
  • Bad habits (alcoholism, smoking);
  • Diseases of the digestive tract (gastrointestinal tract);
  • Neurological diseases;
  • Deficiency of vitamins and minerals.

Pathogenic bacteria and plaque are also present in the overall picture, but they don`t play the decisive role.

3The process of disease establishment and its course

Periodontosis begins suddenly and invisibly. During a long time, especially when there is a lot of teeth deposits (plaque and calculus), the patient may not notice a progressive decline in tissue. Dental stones fit snugly to the cervix and slowly grasp the surface, which is exposed on the development of periodontitis.

Often people come to the dental office to remove mineralized dental plaque, and only after professional cleaning they notice the condition of their periodontal (hard and soft tissues surrounding the tooth). In parallel, the doctor notes the existence and degree of development of periodontosis.

The push for beginning of the pathological process is the insufficient supply of nutrients and vitamins through the blood vessels of periodontal. Consequently, the rate of metabolism decreases and begins degradation (breakdown) of bone tissue and the gums recession (ptosis).

Periodontosis can develop slowly over the years, without causing any inconvenience and is not complicated by additional disorders.

4The symptoms of periodontosis

Symptoms of periodontosis depends on which stage the process is:

Healthy-gum-vs-pereodontal-diseaseThe initial stage is almost always goes unnoticed. Symptoms barely noticeable even for the professional and the patient don’t see the changes at all. And still in the periodontal tissues (bone of the jaw and gum) disease process has already started and necks of the teeth are starting to crop up. Radiographic studies are not informative.

The first stage is characterized by a minor recession (omission) of gums. Tooth sensitivity can occur from time to time. The teeth remain in place and are tightly stand in the wells. On the a roentgen the initial destructive changes in bone tissue is already visible.

The second stage shows a significant exposure of the necks. There are gaps between the teeth, in places of recession can be visible the cement enamel junction (solid covering the roots of teeth), hyperesthesia worries the patient (enhanced sensitivity of teeth). Fortress periodontal ligaments have not weakened yet. The roentgen picture is characterized by visible atrophic changes of the alveolar bone (arc-shaped protrusion the jaws, in which the roots of the teeth are fixed).

In the transition to the third stage the roots are in favor of the gum by more than half. Interdental gaps widened even more, there may be tooth mobility. The patient disturbed by unpleasant feeling when taking sour, hot and cold food. On the a roentgen determined reduction of the height of the alveolar bone per 1 cm.

The fourth stage is considered as a last stage, because it serves as an indication for the removal of teeth. Roots exposed on two thirds of its length. Mobility and tooth sensitivity prevent when the patient speaking and eating. Radiological research shows that the roots of the teeth are held in just the tip of the bone.

At all stages of the disease the hyperemia and bleeding doesn’t appears. Soft pink tissue, periodontal pockets (a part of gingiva adjacent to the neck of the tooth, but not attached to it) is not expanded.

Periodontosis is almost always chronic. The name “acute form” is a symbol, as the difference is only in the rapid progression of the disease.

Depending on what stage of development is periodontosis, the doctor prescribes treatment and decides: is it possible to keep your teeth, or better to resort to the orthopedic treatment.

5With what can be confused periodontitis?

To determine with certainty the presence of periodontosis, you need to know for sure how it differs from other periodontal diseases.

Its symptoms overlap with clinical symptoms of gingivitis and periodontitis.

Gingivitis – an inflammatory disease of gums that occurs at a bad oral hygiene. In this case it only affects the gums. In contrast to periodontitis, even at the most severe stage of gingivitis jaw bones remain intact, and the teeth – fixed. In case of periodontosis the gums pale pink and healthy looking. In gingivitis the gum mucous sheath becomes inflamed, bleeding and redness observed.

Most often periodontosis confused with periodontitis as tooth mobility appears in both cases. But periodontitis is infectious and inflammatory diseases, accompanied by an extension of periodontal pockets, hyperemia, hemorrhage and suppuration. In case of periodontosis such symptoms are observed.

6Treatment of periodontosis

It should be noted a sad fact that the methods that can completely cure periodontosis, in our time has not came up yet. Physician periodontist is able just to stop the progression of the disease process and stabilize the patient’s condition.

Actually the treatment begins with the removal of the etiologic (causative) factors. In order to eliminate the cause, at first you need to identify it, so the patient must undergo a full examination of all organs and systems, which he was concerned.

The next stage of treatment is a professional oral hygiene. Despite the small role of pathogenic bacteria in periodontosis development, should still remove all the dental plaque. On gum freed from stones, the drugs works effectiveness.


It is necessary to get trained oral health and learn how to properly brush the teeth. Incorrect manipulation can enhance the speed of the omission of the gums.

It is advisable to use toothpaste, strengthening periodontal and improve blood circulation in the mucous membrane of the gums.

From medicines periodontist appoint just vitamins and minerals. In the presence of common diseases of the body the therapist can make a separate appointment.

Such physiotherapy as the following have positive effect on periodontosis:

  • Gums massage- is carried out using a special apparatus. In this case the flow of blood to the periodontal tissues is enhanced, improving the metabolism.
  • Darsonvalization and dynamic currents – operate on the same principle as the massage. They contribute to the stabilization of trophic and suspend atrophy.
  • Electrophoresis in combination with calcium gluconate – reduces hyperesthesia (hypersensitivity) in the area of ​​the exposed tooth necks. Electrophoresis – it’s introduction of the drug into the periodontal soft tissues by low-voltage current.
  • Self-massage of gums is also allowed, but only with a doctor’s permission. Twice a day it allowed to massaging the gums  gently within a few minutes. Before the procedure, you need to brush your teeth and wash your hands, avoid the infection.

The meaning of physiotherapy is the saturation of periodontal tissues with oxygen, increased blood flow and restoring nutrient exchange processes.

Orthopaedic treatment can greatly help if the teeth preserved in the dentition, but have become mobile. Plastic tire, in conjunction with intensive therapy prevents further loosening and loss of teeth.Many are concerned about dietary nutrition with periodontosis. Is not necessary to follow strict dietary rules, but it is advisable to enrich the diet of fruits and vegetables. It contains vitamins that are needed to restore the body.

Seafood and pulses (peas, beans) saturate the tissue with minerals and their use also is important for health and strengthening of the oral mucosa.

Surgical treatment

scaling-planingSurgery, in this case, directed to restore resorbed gums and bone of the alveolar ridge.

Various osteo replacement (replacing damaged bone areas) preparations, membranes and decoy materials filed under the gum. After some time, the materials take root and begin to synthesize the bone. With a favorable course of treatment, there is a chance to “grow” the alveolar bone again and to strengthen the mobile teeth.

For regeneration of the gums used several types of cell cultures:

  • Stem cells are known for their rejuvenating properties. They are able to reproduce new tissue, to enhance speed healing and maintain cell structure. In case of periodontosis stem cells perform renewal function of gums.
  • The fibroblasts are responsible for the formation of collagen. Collagen structure increases the elasticity of the tissues and strengthen protective mechanisms of the mucous membrane. They make soft tissue of periodontal more durable and resistant to adverse factors.
  • The factor of platelet-derived growth refers to protein structures. It plays an important role in angiogenesis (the formation of new blood and lymph vessels). Synthesis of healthy capillaries restores the blood circulation and metabolic processes in the gums that are necessary for normal functioning.

Osteoplastic surgery and the use of cell cultures is one of the most expensive ways to treat periodontosis. But, in case of successful engraftment of materials, surgical treatment can give great results.

Treatment of periodontosis at home

Self-treatment of periodontosis, without the involvement of a professional doctor, is highly undesirable. The disease is treated with difficulty and during a long time even using intensive care and self-medication may be (at best) ineffective.

But there are methods of treatment at home, which is very useful to use in conjunction with a regular visit to the periodontist.

The doctor may prescribe the following gels and ointments for independent use. They increase the blood circulation and metabolism, oxygenate the tissues and have an additional anti-inflammatory effect.

  • Troxevasin has a pronounced anti periodontosis action. It strengthens the vascular wall of capillaries and improves blood flow. The gel is rubbed into the gums with soft movements until completely absorbed twice during the day.
  • Elyugel includes in its composition chlorhexidine – a famous antiseptic. It should be applied with thin layer on gums several times per day.
  • Holisal rubbed into the periodontal tissue twice per day. The duration of treatment depends on the severity of the disease.
  • Heparin ointment has the ability to thin the blood, improving the microcirculation in the vessels. Within two weeks, the ointment is applied to the gum in a small amount twice a day.
  • Solkoseril used for rubbing and for applying dressings. Bandage called a small piece of gauze, which applied the ointment until full impregnation. The dressing is applied to the gums for 10-20 minutes.

Anti periodontosis gels and ointments generally quite safe. But before their application should consult a doctor and discuss in detail the methods and duration of their use.

How to treat periodontosis by using folk methods

Traditional medicine is based on the treatment with natural products. In case of properly using of the herbs and other nutrients, it is possible to significantly improve the effectiveness of the treatment of c.

Healers believe that following recipes are the most effective :

  • Dried cranberries leaves, the amount of six grams, you need to pour a glass of boiling water and boil for about 20 minutes. Strain and cool at room temperature and rinse your mouth with received broth at least 5 times a day.
  • Calendula tincture prepared as follows: two tablespoons of crushed marigold pour 500 ml of boiling water and infuse for 30 minutes. Rinse your mouth 5-7 times a day.
  • Kombucha is rich in vitamin C, which strengthens the walls of blood vessels. Gargle with tincture of fungus is very useful for circulation restore.
  • Grated sup in case of periodontosis is added to toothpaste and also helps to strengthen the gums.
  • Replacing the usual tea into green can provide, though weak, but positive effect. It acts on the whole body, cleansing and reorganise it. Accordingly, the periodontal condition is improving in parallel of other organs and systems.
  • Garlic tincture – one of the most effective infusions for the treatment of periodontosis. To prepare it, you need to pour boiling water and chopped garlic press. After half an hour to filter and rinse the mouth, holding the mouth infusion of 5-10 minutes, twice a day.

Treatment of parodontosis with propolis and honey

__3683824It’s necessary to mention separately the healing properties of bee products, although they belong to the category of folk treatments as well.

Lotions with honey, rinse solutions or simply smearing mucous membranes helps relieve irritations and restore normal blood flow.

Propolis tincture can be prepared independently, and can be purchased in a pharmacy in finished form. Add 20-25 drops of 10% tincture in a glass of boiled water. It’s necessary to rinse your mouth with the resulting solution after every meal for two weeks.

Infusion, with concentration of 4%, is used to compress (attach moistened piece of cotton to the causal place) several times a day for 2-3 minutes.

Ingestion of 15-20 drops of 10% tincture before meals is also allowed, but only on prescription.

There is a method of using propolis in its pure form. Fresh feed is kneaded and stretched into a thin strip, applied to the gums for the whole night within 10 days. But this method is dangerous because you can accidentally swallow the propolis, or it  can get into the respiratory tract.

Rubbing of honey mixed with crushed cinnamon, in the mucous membrane – the most pleasant procedure. At the same time tasty and the pleasant smell pleases and benefits. The ingredients are mixed in a ratio of 1: 1, rubbed into the affected areas for whole night. In the morning should rinse your mouth with warm water. The course of treatment – a week.

Propolis and honey has, in addition, antibacterial and healing properties. Although periodontosis inflammatory reaction is observed, additional antiseptic properties come to him only on advantage.

7Prevention of periodontosis

In the absence of effective treatment, it’s easier and more correct to try to prevent periodontosis than to go to doctors and listen disappointing forecasts.

Once the cause of periodontal disease is unknown, it is necessary to work on the factors that make it possible to maintain the overall health of periodontosis:

  • Vitamins and minerals – known aides in maintaining the tone and vitality of the whole organism. More raw, hard vegetables and fruits in your diet and less fast food – the main rule of healthy eating.
  • Regular exercise strengthens the whole body, improve immunity and thus beneficial effect on the condition of the gums.
  • Regular dental hygiene (self and professional) and the mouth is a very important component in maintaining a healthy periodontal complex. The toothbrush additionally massages the gums when brushing teeth, increasing blood flow and removing soft plaque and a professional cleaning prevents the formation of tartar. Although bacteria are not the causative agents of periodontosis, its role in the process, they, nevertheless, are playing.
  • Careful attention to the condition of their internal organs is necessary, as the patients with periodontosis are almost always found severe systemic illness.

Taking care of yourself and your health – the key to the prevention of periodontosis. Lack of information about this disease makes it more dangerous than other oral diseases, which appears aggressive, but can be completely cured.

8Some interesting facts

With what can surprise such disease as periodontosis? At first glance, based on the scant symptoms and lack of knowledge of the disease, we can not say anything interesting. And still, periodontosis – an insidious disease. Research of experts outlined several interesting features, which is fraught with periodontosis:

  • Scientists of Karolinska Institutet have found that severe form of periodontosis is not curable, it can indicate the presence of malignant neoplasms (cancer), and other serious illnesses. Brigitte Seder (professor, who led the study) said that if the teeth start falling out, one by one, then the disease is already takes place about 20 years.
  • Monitoring of three thousand patients during 16 years,  allowed to conclude that young people with severe periodontosis susceptible to premature death from serious diseases to a greater extent than people with a healthy periodontium.

The study reported more than a hundred cases of death. The average age of the deceased patients was less than 50 years.

Dentists  assure that any body’s disease anyway appears in the oral cavity. These studies confirm this assumption, although there is no scientific evidence of the theory yet.

  • Stoill Barzakoff

    Please, fix the errors in the text. Some parts of the article are barely understandable.