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Clinical urineanalysis

Urinalysis (urinalysis) is a laboratory test that allows evaluating physical and chemical characteristics of the urine and microscopy of the sediment.

What indicators are examined in the clinical urine analysis?

The features that are examined are the color of urine, its transparency, specific gravity, acidity (pH). The urine is examined on the concentration of protein, glucose, bilirubin, urobilinogen, ketones, nitrite and hemoglobin. Epithelial cells, erythrocytes, leukocytes, cylinders, bacteria are also detected in the urinary sediment.

Why is urinalysis performed?

  • for the diagnosis of kidney diseases: nephritis, nephrosclerosis, amyloidosis, kidney stones, tumors;
  • to diagnose pyelonephritis, diseases of the bladder, prostate;
  • to detect early signs of diseases, therefore the urine test is done in case of preventive examinations.

What are the indications for a clinical analysis of urine?

  1. obligatory examination, which is carried out in all patients regardless of a presumptive diagnosis;
  2. kidney disease and urinary tract;
  3. the annual preventive examination;
  4. the assessment of the course of the disease and the effectiveness of the ongoing treatment;
  5. those who had a streptococcal infection (tonsillitis, scarlet fever) is recommended to give a urine sample after 1-2 weeks after recovery.

How to prepare for the analysis?

It is important to abstain from alcohol, emotional and physical stress, fruits and vegetables that can change the color of urine; avoid taking diuretics. It is not recommended to do the urine test for 5-7 days after cystoscopy and during the menstruation period.

How to collect urine for the analysis?

It is necessary to perform hygienic procedures of external genitals before collecting the urine; then, right after waking up one should collect the whole portion of the morning urine in the prepared clean and dry container, stir and pour about 50 ml of it into the prepared container with a tight lid.

Is it possible to store urine?

Collected urine should be delivered to the laboratory within 1-2 hours, and it must be stored in a cool place.

How many days to wait for the results of a urine test

1 business day.

What are the normal urine test results?

Markes Results
The amount of the collected urine for the analysis Doesn’t matter for the diagnosis
Color various shades of yellow
Clarity of urine Сlear
Odor of urine Slight and non-specific
Reaction of urine or рН acid, рН  –  4,8 – 7,5
Specific gravity (relative density) of urine 1010 – 1025
Protein in urine < 0,140 g/l
Glucose in urine None
Ketones in urine None
Bilirubin in urine None
Urobilinogen in urine 5-10 mg/l
Hemoglobin in urine None
Red blood cells in urine

(microscopy)

0-3 seen in women
0-1 seen in men
White blood cells in urine

(microscopy)

0–6 seen in women
0–3 seen in men
Epithelial cells in urine

(microscopy)

0-10 seen
Cylinders in urine
(microscopy)
None
Salts in urine

(microscopy)

None
Bacteria in urine None
Yeast cells in urine None
Parasites in urine None